michael walzer professor emeritus institute for advanced study princeton new jersey 1935
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Michael Walzer , Professor Emeritus, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton New Jersey. (1935 - ). (Photo from Sienna College web page on Living Philosophers, http:// www.siena.edu/pages/6198.asp).

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michael walzer professor emeritus institute for advanced study princeton new jersey 1935
Michael Walzer, Professor Emeritus, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton New Jersey. (1935 - )

(Photo from Sienna College web page on Living Philosophers,



Walzer thinks that the US decision to drop atomic bomb on two cities in Japan at the end of WWII was





How does this fit with his views on double effect?

consequentialist paper
Consequentialist paper
  • A. State thesis.
  • B. State and explain normative principle.
  • C. Defend your NP here, or do it at end.
  • D. Present empirical facts to show that the likely consequences of the action in question are or are not better than the consequences of the alternative.
  • E. Defend NP after that case is made if you didn’t do it above.
pacifist paper
Pacifist Paper
  • State thesis: War in question is not justified.
  • State that you are arguing from a pacifist normative principle that forbids lethal violence against persons.
  • Explain that the war in question involves lethal violence and thus are banned by your NP.
  • Spend the vast majority of the paper defending the NP, since it is the only controversial claim you are using to support your conclusion. Be sure to use some argument that does not rely on religious premises, since you want to convince those who don’t agree with you on religion.
just war theory paper
Just War Theory Paper
  • A. State thesis.
  • B. Explain that you are using JWT to argue for it. Either give the details of the theory here, or let you reader know that you’ll give those details in subsequent parts of the paper where you will also assess whether they have been met.
  • C. Either defend the JWT theory and your interpretation of its relevant parts or tell the reader you’ll do that for each criterion as you discuss whether it has been met.
  • D. Go through each criterion that is relevant to your case and show it was or was not met. (If you are arguing that the war in question is justified, you need to show that all are met. If you are arguing that it wasn’t it is probably wise to focus on these that weren’t met.)
another sort of paper
Another sort of paper
  • A. Someone could argue that no matter what reasonable normative theory about the justification of wars one accepts a war is not justified.
  • B. You could argue that every sensible theory that permits wars, consequentialist or non-consequentialist, includes some way of taking into account the overall goodness or badness of consequences.
    • If you do this you will want to argue that this makes sense to take into account and that argument will be equivalent to defending a (part of a) NP.
  • C. Then use empirical claims to argue that all such theories will rule the war in question unjustified by arguing about the consequences.
  • 1. It is permissible to get help from other people but if you do you should give them credit – perhaps in a first or last footnote if the help is general, at the spot where you use their idea if it is specific.
  • 2. If you use a source for information or to borrow ideas and arguments from, it should also be cited at the point in your text where you use that source.
  • 3. You should be using your own words throughout unless you are quoting someone. And quotations should be in quotation marks or (if a longer quote) indented. And the source should be clearly given.
  • 4. Any citation format that allows a reader to easily find the source will be OK. One way is author, year, and page number in parentheses in the text and all sources in a bibliography. Another is a genuine footnote or endnote with numbers in the text.
homework due in sections this week
Homework due in sections this week:
  • 1. Look up and quote the relevant language about plagiarism from the student code of conduct. Bring it with you to sections.
  • 2. Have a look at the graduate studies website page on plagiarism at http://www.unl.edu/gradstudies/current/plagiarism#about (It is better than the undergrad page on related topics, though it too has a few things I’d quibble about, specifically what it says about “interpretations” in the terminology section.)
  • 3. Write a 1 page paper or paper fragment about whatever you want. Violate the rules (two different ones) about plagiarism twice in that page. Then write up the same page with the citations and quotations done correctly.
reading for the next class
Reading for the Next Class:
  • http://www.princeton.edu/~reinhard/pdfs/100-NEXT_HOW_ECONOMISTS_BASTARDIZED_BENTHAMITE_UTILITARIANISM.pdf
  • This is a handout from Uwe Reinhardt for his Economics 100 class. He is a Professor of Economics and Public Affairs at Princeton University.
  • This handout gives a good sense for how a Benthamite Utilitarian might approach the distribution of money, given the idea that we want to maximize overall happiness.
  • No Reading for Wednesday the 14, but do the homework on plagiarism.