Intro to Sociolinguistics. An exploration into the relationship between language and culture. Fundamental Question. a. What is the relationship between language and culture? b. Humans are the only animal to have culture . c. Humans are the only animal to have language.
An exploration into the relationship between language and culture.
a.What is the relationship between language and culture?
b.Humans are the only animal to have culture.
c.Humans are the only animal to have language.
d. How do the two connect?
e. What is language? “what members of a particular society speak” (Wardhaugh 1).
a.I know I don't speak English correctly.
b.Most French-Canadians prefer to speak French, even though they can
speak English too.
c. The treaty wasn't ready to sign until both sides had a chance to look over
d. A polyglot is someone who knows many languages. A linguist is someone
who can analyze language structure.
e. English is the most widely-spoken language in the world.
f.American thought and language.
g.I need to work on my language skills.
h. When Fred speaks to Sam, sometimes he uses English and sometimes Arabic.
The object of a science of linguistics (Saussure).
difference between surface structure and deep structure in language
1. Is language as Dawkins suggests part of the DNA of homosapiens?
2. Is there a “creative” component (the horrible honeybee story)
Langue v parole
Structure v event
Structural v communicative
universal v dialect
Wardhaugh, quite sensibly, argues that sociolinguistics is both macrolinguistic and microlinguistic:
Communicative approaches: p. 14
Language and power (Fairclough), Social construction of reality (Berger and Luckmann); Language and Symbolic Power (Bourdieu); Pragramatics (Austin)
Language Planning, Multilingualism
Social structure may influence or determine linguistic structure and/or behaviour
Linguistic structure/behaviour influences or determines social structure (Whorfian hypothesis)
Methodological principlesWardhaugh p. 181. Cumulative2. Uniformation3. Convergence4. Subordinate shift5. Style shifting6. Attention7. Vernacular8. Formality