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Case Studies for Options of Sustainable Sewage Sludge Disposal in China - Abstract and Conclusive Information - Dr. Weimin Shen, Kocks Consult, Koblenz, Germany. Introduction of the Project “Case Studies”. Financed by KfW Conducted by a consulting consortium with following members

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slide1
Case Studies for Options of

Sustainable Sewage Sludge Disposal in China

- Abstract and Conclusive Information -

Dr. Weimin Shen, Kocks Consult, Koblenz, Germany

introduction of the project case studies
Introduction of the Project “Case Studies”
  • Financed by KfW
  • Conducted by a consulting consortium with following members
    • Ingenieure Meschke und Schuster
    • Dahlem Beratende Ingenieure
    • Hamburger Stadtentwässerung
    • Kocks Consult
    • NCMEDRI
  • Supported by seven major cities in China
present situation of landfills
Present Situation of Landfills
  • Disposed within WWTP sites or dumped on public areas
  • Shortcomings of disposal of sewage sludge on sanitary landfills:
    • such as high water content, low shear strength and insufficient stabilization

Present problems with operation and safety

  • Limited sanitary landfill capacity for medium or long term needs
future development of landfills
Future Development of Landfills
  • Advanced preconditions for sludge characteristic for disposal on sanitary landfill
    • water content of sewage sludge less than 65%
    • shear strength of sewage sludge more than 25kN/m2

Additional costs for sludge post-treatment on WWTP

  • Requirements for location and operation of sanitary landfill
    • distance to cities with regard to the environmental protection
    • advanced treatment of landfill gas and seepage water

Additional costs for transportation and operation

future development of landfills7
Future Development of Landfills
  • In general, the total costs for sludge disposal on sanitary landfill will increase significantly in the future.
  • In the long term, such solutions are not sustainable for major cities due to shortage of landfill capacity.
present situation of agricultural use
Present Situation of Agricultural Use
  • Reasons for the lack of positive examples
    • does not comply with regulations and standards, such as concentration limits for relevant pollutants in sewage sludge
    • no stable and sustainable market needs, such as available farmland
    • no sufficient control and management, such as limits for quantity, time and location
    • minor acceptance of public, especially against the epidemic risks such as SARS in China
future development of agricultural use
Future Development of Agricultural Use
  • Advanced preconditions for agricultural use
    • limits for pollutant concentrations in sewage sludge
    • limits for sludge application quantities
    • limits for use objects and sites, such as forestry or non-food products
    • limits for contaminants concentrations in the soil
  • Agricultural use should be considered as the most economic solution if the above mentioned pre-conditions can be fulfilled.
  • In the future, the agricultural use will play only a minor role for major cities in China.
present situation of incineration
Present Situation of Incineration
  • A high potential for sludge incineration has been identified since last years.
  • Realized mono-incineration, for example:
    • Shanghai
  • Realized co-incineration, for example:
    • Changzhou in coal power plant
    • Suzhou in coal power plant
    • Nanjing in coal power plant
    • Beijing in cement industry
future development of incineration
Future Development of Incineration
  • In the future, co-incineration will play a important role for the sludge disposal in major cities in China.
  • Simple pre-conditions on co-incineration in coal power plants
    • water content of sewage sludge less than 80% available

Possibly: maybe limited capacity of one coal power plant

  • High acceptance of coal power plants
    • generation of extra income
    • reuse of ashes
    • no additional measures for waste gas cleaning

But: investment for installation of a station for reception, storage and dosage

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Agricultural use plays a minor role for major cities and will not be applicable on a large scaled.
  • Landfill is generally limited by scare capacities of the existing landfill sites and an intermediate solution for the following years.
  • Clear preference is given to the sludge incineration in coal power plants if available.
outlook
Outlook
  • Small Cities

Landfills are present and pragmatic solutions for most small cities. If possible, it should be tried to realize agricultural use as the most economic option.

  • Major Cities

Landfills are only intermediate solutions before other options will be realised. Co-incineration will be the preferred option for major cities in the future, if facilities are available.

thank you for your attention
Thank you for your Attention !

Address: Dr.-Ing. Weimin Shen

Kocks Consult GmbH

Stegemannstr. 32-38, D-56068 Koblenz, Germany

Tel.: +49 (0)261 / 1302-162

Fax. : +49 (0)261 / 1302-152

E-Mail: shen@kocks-ing.de