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Happy (198 th ) birthday Chucky D.!!!. Mutations are random. Luria & Delbr ü ck experiment (1943). Mutations are random. Joshua & Esther Lederberg (1952). Replica plating. Phenotypic effect of mutations. Ranges from neutral to substantial. Antennapedia.

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Presentation Transcript
mutations are random
Mutations are random
  • Luria & Delbrück experiment (1943)
mutations are random1
Mutations are random
  • Joshua & Esther Lederberg (1952)

Replica plating

phenotypic effect of mutations
Phenotypic effect of mutations
  • Ranges from neutral to substantial

Antennapedia

distribution of mutational effects upon fitness
Distribution of mutational effects upon fitness
  • Theoretical prediction, only now some data…

proportion

deleterious

beneficial

lethal

neutral

natural selection
Natural selection
  • Definition: “Any consistent difference in fitness… among phenotypically different biological entities” (Futuyma, p.349)
  • Requirement: variation in traits that effect fitness
  • Selection always equal to evolution?
  • Contrasts with drift – chance rise of genotypes
  • More than just success of individuals
  • Cause & effect… (Gould & Lewontin, 1979)
levels of selection
Levels of selection
  • Group selection
    • Wynne-Edwards: self-regulation and restraint of individuals (“ensure survival of the species”)
    • Related to “balance of nature” in ecology
    • Williams: Only individual level benefits
  • Species selection
  • Genic selection
    • Dawkins: The Selfish Gene(1989)
what is adaptation
What is adaptation?
  • Noun vs. verb (vs. acclimation)
    • Noun: “…[A] feature is an adaptation for some function if it has become prevalent or is maintained in a population… because of natural selection for that function” (Futuyma, p.355)
    • “… the good fit of organisms to their environment” (Gould & Lewontin, 1979)
  • Preadaptation…
  • Exaptation…
  • Traits can be non-adaptive
what adaptation is not
What adaptation is not…

Necessary

Perfect

Progress

Harmonious

Moral

looking forward
Looking forward…

Assignment:Revised plan from each group (1-2 pages)

Microbiology review sessions:

2/15, 6 pm – Brock 1, 2, 5 (General micro & metabolism)

2/20, 6 pm – Brock 6, 9, 12, 13 (Microbial growth, basic virology, overview of bacterial & archaeal diversity)

Special guest lecture:

2/22, 6 pm – Daniel Segrè, “Origin of biological networks”

*pizza & beer will be provided*