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Welcome -- Day 1. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis. FTEP Modules. Quick QFD. Systems Engineering Fundamentals. Global 8D. Ford Technical Education Program. FMEA. Process Control Methods. Experimental Design. Reliability. Parameter Design. Tolerance Design. Warm-Up -- Day 1.

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Welcome day 1 l.jpg

Welcome -- Day 1

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis


Ftep modules l.jpg
FTEP Modules

Quick QFD

Systems Engineering

Fundamentals

Global 8D

Ford Technical

Education Program

FMEA

Process

Control Methods

ExperimentalDesign

Reliability

Parameter Design

ToleranceDesign


Warm up day 1 l.jpg
Warm-Up -- Day 1

Place Self Others Team

Purpose Agenda


Course purpose l.jpg
Course Purpose

These three days are designed to...

help you function effectively as an FMEA team member, but not to leave as an FMEA team leader or an FMEA expert


Participant materials l.jpg
Participant Materials

Questionnaire

  • Only one correct answer is possible

  • Do NOT guess if unsure of answer


Fmea an introduction l.jpg

Day 1

Introduction

FMEA -- An Introduction

  • Why Do FMEAs?

  • Definition, Purpose, Types, Benefits

  • FMEA Working Model

  • Generating / Managing

  • Team Approach


Ford 2000 strategies l.jpg

Nimble Through

Process Leadership

Lead in Customer Satisfaction

Ford 2000 Strategies

EmpoweredPeople

Achieve Worldwide Growth

Ford

The World’s

Leading

Automotive

Company

Achieve Worldwide

Product Excellence

The Low CostProducer

Lead in Corporate

Citizenship


Why do fmeas l.jpg
Why Do FMEAs?

  • Appropriate recommended actions may not have been taken

  • Significant savings in engineering time -- reduction in changes immediately before and after Job 1


Fmea definition l.jpg

2-2

FMEA -- Definition

Structured group of activities which ...

  • Recognize and evaluate the potential failure of a product or process and its effects

  • Identify actions which could eliminate or reduce the chance of the potential failure occurring

  • Document the process


Fmea purposes l.jpg

Origin of

Failures

Elimination of

Failures

FMEA

JOB 1

FMEA Purposes

Failures

Time


Fmea purposes12 l.jpg

Unreliable

Products

Excellent

Products

Customer Orientation

QFD

Reliable

Products

Customer

Doesn't Want

Disaster

Design and Process Orientation

FMEA

FMEA Purposes


Fmea purposes13 l.jpg

2-2

FMEA -- Purposes

FMEAs are intended to ...

  • Identify potential failure modes and rate severity of effects

  • Identify critical and significant characteristics

  • Help engineers prioritize and focus on eliminating product and process concerns and helps prevent problems from occurring

  • Test adequacy of controls from DCP process


Fmea types l.jpg

System

Design

FMEA

Sub-System

Component

System

Assembly

Sub-System

Process

FMEA

Component

System

Manufacturing

Sub-System

Component

2-4

FMEA -- Types

Concept

FMEA


Benefits concept fmeas l.jpg

2-5

Benefits -- Concept FMEAs

Design

  • Helps select optimum concept

  • Identifies potential failure modes

  • Considers potential effects

  • Helps generate occurrence ratings

  • Identifies testing requirements

  • Helps determine if hardware system redundancy is required

Concept

Process


Benefits design fmeas l.jpg

2-5

Benefits -- Design FMEAs

Design

  • Aids in evaluating requirements and alternatives

  • Aids in initial design for DFM

  • Increases probability of detecting failure modes and their effects

  • Provides additional information for testing requirements

  • Helps identify critical and significant characteristics

  • Helps validate DVPs and SDSs

Concept

Process


Benefits process fmeas l.jpg

2-6

Benefits -- Process FMEAs

Design

  • Identifies potential product related failure modes

  • Assesses effects on all customers

  • Identifies potential Manufacturing and Assembly causes to focus controls on reducing occurrence and/or increasing detection

  • Establishes a priority system for considering corrective actions

  • Identifies confirmed critical and significant characteristics

Concept

Process


Fmea working model l.jpg

Potential

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

___ System

FMEA Number:

Design Responsibility:

___ Subsystem

Page 1 of 1

Key Date:

___ Component

Prepared by:

Model Year / Vehicle(s):

FMEA Date (

Orig): (Rev)

Core Team:

Action Results

Potential

Potential

S

C

Potential

O

Current

D

R

Responsibility &

O

R

S

D

Item

e

c

e

P

Failure

Effect(s)

e

l

Cause(s)/

c

Design

e

P

Recommended

Target

Actions

v

c

t

N

Mode

of Failure

v

a

Mechanisms

c

Controls

t

N

Action(s)

Completion Date

Taken

s

Failure

u

e

Function

s

r

c

FMEA Working Model


Generating fmeas l.jpg

2-9

Generating FMEAs

Who initiates?

Who prepares?

Who updates?

Who is FMEA customer?

When to discard?

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

FMEAs

When started and updated?

How is FMEA documented?

Relationshipto FPDS?

When is FMEA complete?


Managing fmeas l.jpg
Managing FMEAs

FMEAs are living documents, and are updated when ...

  • Modification to a component, process or system is planned

  • Component is to be used in new environment

  • Customer concern arises: Global 8D


Fmeas and systems engineering l.jpg

2-13

KO

SC

PA

PR

J1

SI

FMEAs and Systems Engineering

Customer

Customer

Customer Focus

Musts / Wants

Satisfaction

Customer Experience & Feedback

CFMEA

Vehicle Level Inputs

Customer

Purchase, Operate

Purchaser / owner / operator

Disposal

& Maintain

Requirements

Regulatory (FMVSS, EPA, ...)

Corporate (WCR, ABS, Manuf, ...)

Feasibility

Requirements

Feedback

Cascade

Vehicle Level Requirements

Vehicle

DVM / DVP

Vehicle Attributes

Production

Verification

Vehicle System Specification - VDS

Feasibility

Requirements

Feedback

Cascade

DFMEA

System / Subsystem Level

PFMEA

DVM / DVP

System

System &

Verification

Subsystem Design Specifications -

SDS

Feasibility

Requirements

Feedback

Cascade

Part /

Part/

Component Fabrication /

Verification

Component Design

Component Design Specification - CDS


Team approach fmea l.jpg

Core

Team

Support

Team

3-5

Team Approach -- FMEA


Section summary l.jpg

Day 1

Introduction

Section Summary

  • Why Do FMEAs?

  • Definition, Purpose, Types, Benefits

  • FMEA Working Model

  • Generating / Managing

  • Team Approach



Design fmea an introduction l.jpg

Day 1

Design FMEA Introduction

Design FMEA -- An Introduction

  • Identify FMEA Team

  • Establish Scope

  • Describe Function

    • Brainstorming

    • Function Trees

  • Practice Exercise 1


Design fmea l.jpg

Potential

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

___ System

FMEA Number:

Design Responsibility:

___ Subsystem

Page 1 of 1

Key Date:

___ Component

Prepared by:

Model Year / Vehicle(s):

FMEA Date (

Orig): (Rev)

Core Team:

Action Results

Potential

Potential

S

C

Potential

O

Current

D

R

Responsibility &

O

R

S

D

Item

e

c

e

P

Failure

Effect(s)

e

l

Cause(s)/

c

Design

e

P

Recommended

Target

Actions

v

c

t

N

Mode

of Failure

v

a

Mechanisms

c

Controls

t

N

Action(s)

Completion Date

Taken

s

Failure

u

e

Function

s

r

c

Design FMEA

Scope

Team

Team


Design fmea team l.jpg

Facilitator or Application Engineer

Technical Affairs

  • Representatives from:

  • Customer Service

  • Suppliers

  • Global Test Operations

  • Corporate Quality

SupportTeam

Design Engineer

Manufacturing / Process Engineer

CORETeam

3-5

Design FMEA -- Team


Design fmea scope l.jpg

3-8

Design FMEA -- Scope

Once core teamis established...

  • Create a block diagram

  • Identify the boundary for analysis

  • Confirm composition of the support team


Constructing block diagrams l.jpg

Assembly

Service

Part X

Part Y

Screw

Weld

User

Part Z

OtherSystems

Adhesive

3-10

Constructing Block Diagrams

Component/Assembly


Block diagram example l.jpg
Block Diagram -- Example

Headlamp Assembly


Block diagram example31 l.jpg
Block Diagram -- Example

Vertical Trimmer Assembly


Block diagram example32 l.jpg

Hood(Clearance)

AdjusterSocket

User

Block Diagram -- Example

Lateral Location Screw

Clips 2

Vehicle BodyUpper CrossMember

Reflector

VerticalTrimmerAssembly


Determine function l.jpg

Potential

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

___ System

FMEA Number:

Design Responsibility:

___ Subsystem

Page 1 of 1

Key Date:

___ Component

Prepared by:

Model Year / Vehicle(s):

FMEA Date (

Orig): (Rev)

Core Team:

Action Results

Potential

Potential

S

C

Potential

O

Current

D

R

Responsibility &

O

R

S

D

Item

e

c

e

P

Failure

Effect(s)

e

l

Cause(s)/

c

Design

e

P

Recommended

Target

Actions

v

c

t

N

Mode

of Failure

v

a

Mechanisms

c

Controls

t

N

Action(s)

Completion Date

Taken

s

Failure

u

e

Function

s

r

c

Determine Function

Scope

Team


What is function l.jpg

5-6

What is Function ?

  • Design intent or engineering requirement

  • Must be measurable or set at an actionable level

  • Representation of all wants, needs and requirements, both spoken and unspoken


Describe function l.jpg

Verb

Noun

Indicates action, occurrence, being

Indicates what the action relates to

5-7

Describe Function

Generate Control

Dispense Retain Prevent

Light

Speed

Fuel

Seat Track

Rust


Describe function36 l.jpg
Describe Function

Thought Starters ...

  • Satisfy user

  • Attract user

  • Assure convenience

  • Assure dependability

  • Governmental requirements

  • Safety requirements


Brainstorming l.jpg
Brainstorming

Exercise in creative thinking

Method to generate ideas


Brainstorming guidelines l.jpg
Brainstorming -- Guidelines

  • Warm up

  • Suspend judgment

  • Anything goes

  • Quantity counts

  • Springboard

  • Persevere

  • Warm down


Brainstorming pitfalls l.jpg
Brainstorming -- Pitfalls

  • Low team trust

  • Broad task definition

  • Criticism, competition, defensiveness

  • Silliness, lack of focus

  • Questions and explanations

  • Organizing ideas during creative stage


Brainstorming agreement l.jpg
Brainstorming -- Agreement

  • Everyone explains view(s)

  • Identify needs of individuals

  • If you can’t meet a need, say so

  • Check out feelings -- yours / others

  • Don’t compromise, average, or ‘split the difference’


Function trees l.jpg
Function Trees

  • Provide an organized approach to identify the essential features of a product (or process sometimes)

  • Help ensure that ‘unspoken’ and ‘spoken’ requirements are defined

  • Provide a graphical representation of functions to ensure clear, total team understanding


Constructing function trees l.jpg

HOW ?

WHY ?

SecondaryLevel

TertiaryLevel

Primary Level

Constructing Function Trees


Vertical trimmer function tree l.jpg

HOW ?

WHY ?

Adjust Light Beam X° Both Directions

Permit / Maintain HorizontalAdjustment

Locate Headlamp Laterally 10 Years, 150,000 Miles

Retain Setting10 Years, 150,000 Miles

Adjust Light Beam X° Both Directions

Permit / Maintain

Vertical Adjustment

Locate Headlamp Vertically 10 Years, 150,000 Miles

Retain Setting10 Years, 150,000 Miles

Vertical Trimmer Function Tree

Adjust

Headlamp


Guidelines l.jpg
Guidelines

  • Brainstorm all functions (VERB - NOUN)

  • Document individual functions by asking “HOW is function achieved?”

  • Repeat left to right, until actionable level

  • Use worksheet to check that actionable level is measurable

  • Work right to left and check structure by asking “WHY is function included?”


Practice exercise 1 l.jpg
Practice Exercise 1

Block diagram

Brainstorming

Function Tree


Presentation practice 1 l.jpg
Presentation -- Practice 1

Team Debrief

Technical Debrief


Design fmea functions l.jpg

Potential

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

___ System

FMEA Number:

Design Responsibility:

___ Subsystem

Page 1 of 1

Key Date:

___ Component

Prepared by:

Model Year / Vehicle(s):

FMEA Date (

Orig): (Rev)

Core Team:

Action Results

Potential

Potential

S

C

Potential

O

Current

D

R

Responsibility &

O

R

S

D

Item

e

c

e

P

Failure

Effect(s)

e

l

Cause(s)/

c

Design

e

P

Recommended

Target

Actions

v

c

t

N

Mode

of Failure

v

a

Mechanisms

c

Controls

t

N

Action(s)

Completion Date

Taken

s

Failure

u

e

Function

s

r

c

Function

1

Function

2

Function

3

Sub-Sub-Function

Sub-Function

Function

n

Sub-Sub-Function

Sub-Function

Function

Sub-Sub-Function

Sub-Function

Design FMEA Functions


Section summary49 l.jpg

Day 1

Design FMEA Introduction

Section Summary

  • Identify FMEA Team

  • Establish Scope

  • Describe Function

    • Brainstorming

    • Function Trees

  • Practice Exercise 1


Design fmea path 1 l.jpg

Day 1

DFMEA -- Path 1

Design FMEA Path 1

  • Failure Modes

  • Effects -- Severity

  • Recommended Actions

  • Potential Special Characteristics

  • Practice Exercise 2


Design fmea path 151 l.jpg

Potential

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

___ System

FMEA Number:

Design Responsibility:

___ Subsystem

Page 1 of 1

Key Date:

___ Component

Prepared by:

Model Year / Vehicle(s):

FMEA Date (

Orig): (Rev)

Core Team:

Action Results

Potential

Potential

S

C

Potential

O

Current

D

R

Responsibility &

O

R

S

D

Item

e

c

e

P

Failure

Effect(s)

e

l

Cause(s)/

c

Design

e

P

Recommended

Target

Actions

v

c

t

N

Mode

of Failure

v

a

Mechanisms

c

Controls

t

N

Action(s)

Completion Date

Taken

s

Failure

u

e

Function

s

r

c

Design FMEA -- Path 1


Potential failure modes l.jpg

Potential

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

___ System

FMEA Number:

Design Responsibility:

___ Subsystem

Page 1 of 1

Key Date:

___ Component

Prepared by:

Model Year / Vehicle(s):

FMEA Date (

Orig): (Rev)

Core Team:

Action Results

Potential

Potential

S

C

Potential

O

Current

D

R

Responsibility &

O

R

S

D

Item

e

c

e

P

Failure

Effect(s)

e

l

Cause(s)/

c

Design

e

P

Recommended

Target

Actions

v

c

t

N

Mode

of Failure

v

a

Mechanisms

c

Controls

t

N

Action(s)

Completion Date

Taken

s

Failure

u

e

Function

s

r

c

Function

1

Function

2

  • Potential Failure Modes:

  • No function

  • Partial function

  • Intermittent function

  • Unintended function

Function

3

Function

4

Function

n

5-8

Potential Failure Modes


Potential failure modes53 l.jpg

3-21

Potential Failure Modes

Failure Mode TypePotential Failure Mode

No function

Partial function

Intermittent function

Unintended function

Not operational

Not all of function operating

Occasionally does not function

Unexpected function occurs


Failure modes vertical trimmer l.jpg
Failure Modes -- Vertical Trimmer

Failure Mode: Adjust Light Beam X° in Both Directions

Failure Mode TypePotential Failure Mode

No function No adjustment

Partial function Adjustment in one direction

Intermittent function Adjustment sometimes and not at others

Unintended function Trimmer itself produces light


Effects of failure modes l.jpg

Potential

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

___ System

FMEA Number:

Design Responsibility:

___ Subsystem

Page 1 of 1

Key Date:

___ Component

Prepared by:

Model Year / Vehicle(s):

FMEA Date (

Orig): (Rev)

Core Team:

Action Results

Potential

Potential

S

C

Potential

O

Current

D

R

Responsibility &

O

R

S

D

Item

e

c

e

P

Failure

Effect(s)

e

l

Cause(s)/

c

Design

e

P

Recommended

Target

Actions

v

c

t

N

Mode

of Failure

v

a

Mechanisms

c

Controls

t

N

Action(s)

Completion Date

Taken

s

Failure

u

e

Function

s

r

c

5-10

Effects of Failure Modes


Effects of failure modes56 l.jpg

Potential

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

___ System

FMEA Number:

Design Responsibility:

___ Subsystem

Page 1 of 1

Key Date:

___ Component

Prepared by:

Model Year / Vehicle(s):

FMEA Date (

Orig): (Rev)

Core Team:

Action Results

Potential

Potential

S

C

Potential

O

Current

D

R

Responsibility &

O

R

S

D

Item

e

c

e

P

Failure

Effect(s)

e

l

Cause(s)/

c

Design

e

P

Recommended

Target

Actions

v

c

t

N

Mode

of Failure

v

a

Mechanisms

c

Controls

t

N

Action(s)

Completion Date

Taken

s

Failure

u

e

Function

s

r

c

  • Potential Effects of Failure Modes:

  • Part / Sub-component

  • Assembly

  • System

  • Vehicle

  • Government Regulations

  • Customer (Internal and End User)

5-11

Effects of Failure Modes

Failure Mode 1

Function

1

Failure Mode n

Function

2

Function

n


Design fmea effects table l.jpg
Design FMEA -- Effects Table

Vertical Trimmer

Failure

Mode

Doesn’t Retain Setting

Vehicle

(-)

Impaired Night/Fog Perforsmance

Gov’t

Regs

Road Vehicle Light Regs ‘89 F/CMVSS Non-Compliance

Custmr

Driver

Impaired Night/Fog Vision

Part / SC

Trimmer

May Be Stripped By Adjustment Attempt

System

Lt System

Misaligned Lightbeam

Assbly

Headlamp

Cannot be Adjusted


Design fmea severity l.jpg

Potential

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

___ System

FMEA Number:

Design Responsibility:

___ Subsystem

Page 1 of 1

Key Date:

___ Component

Prepared by:

Model Year / Vehicle(s):

FMEA Date (

Orig): (Rev)

Core Team:

Action Results

Potential

Potential

S

C

Potential

O

Current

D

R

Responsibility &

O

R

S

D

Item

e

c

e

P

Failure

Effect(s)

e

l

Cause(s)/

c

Design

e

P

Recommended

Target

Actions

v

c

t

N

Mode

of Failure

v

a

Mechanisms

c

Controls

t

N

Action(s)

Completion Date

Taken

s

Failure

u

e

Function

s

r

c

5-13

Design FMEA -- Severity


Slide59 l.jpg

Suggested Severity Evaluation Criteria

Effect

Criteria: Severity of Effect

Ranking

HazardousWithout Warning

... affects safe vehicle operation and/or government regulation without warning

10

...affects safe vehicle operation and/or government regulation with warning

HazardousWith Warning

9

… operable at reduced level of performance. Customer experience some dissatisfaction

5

Low

No Effect

None

1


Dfmea severity rating example l.jpg
DFMEA Severity Rating Example

Item

  • VerticalTrimmer/

  • Retains Setting

SEV

Potential Failure Mode

Does not maintain adjustment

Potential Effects of Failure

Part: May be stripped during adjustment (7)

Assembly: Headlamp cannot be adjusted (6)

System: Misaligned lightbeam (8)

Vehicle: Impaired night/fog performance (7)

Govt Regs: Non-compliance (10)

Customer: Impaired night/ fog (7)

Function

10


Dfmea recommended actions l.jpg

Potential

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

___ System

FMEA Number:

Design Responsibility:

___ Subsystem

Page 1 of 1

Key Date:

___ Component

Prepared by:

Model Year / Vehicle(s):

FMEA Date (

Orig): (Rev)

Core Team:

Action Results

Potential

Potential

S

C

Potential

O

Current

D

R

Responsibility &

O

R

S

D

Item

e

c

e

P

Failure

Effect(s)

e

l

Cause(s)/

c

Design

e

P

Recommended

Target

Actions

v

c

t

N

Mode

of Failure

v

a

Mechanisms

c

Controls

t

N

Action(s)

Completion Date

Taken

s

Failure

u

e

Function

s

r

c

5-32

DFMEA -- Recommended Actions


Select and manage actions l.jpg

3-37

Select and Manage Actions

To Reduce:

Consider This Action:

To Accomplish This:

Severity

Eliminate failure

mode(s) ...

Change the design ...


Identify potential special characteristics l.jpg

7-11

Identify Potential Special Characteristics

Design FMEA

S=9

S=10

YC


Practice exercise 2 l.jpg
Practice Exercise 2

Failure Modes

Effects

Severity

Recommended Actions

Classifications



Managing fmeas66 l.jpg
Managing FMEAs

FMEAplus


Presentation practice 2 l.jpg
Presentation -- Practice 2

Team Debrief

Technical Debrief


Section summary68 l.jpg

Day 1

DFMEA -- Path 1

Section Summary

  • Failure Modes

  • Effects -- Severity

  • Recommended Actions

  • Potential Special Characteristics

  • Practice Exercise 2


Warm down day 1 l.jpg
Warm-Down -- Day 1

Self

Others

Place

Team

Purpose

Agenda


Course purpose70 l.jpg
Course Purpose

These three days are designed to ...

help you function effectively as an FMEA team member, but not to leave as an FMEA team leader or an FMEA expert


Day 1 l.jpg

Day 1

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis


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