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Plant Design Summary. We. Process & Plant Design. Don’t Panic. Just calm down . You are a Chemical Engineer . What Is a Project?. A project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to accomplish a unique ( non-repetitive) product or service ” Attributes of projects: unique purpose

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Process & Plant Design

what is a project
What Is a Project?
  • A project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to accomplish a unique ( non-repetitive) product or service”
  • Attributes of projects:
    • unique purpose
    • temporary
    • require resources, often from various areas
    • should have a primary sponsor and/or customer
    • involve uncertainty
defining the project
Defining the Project

Statement of Work

  • Project Purpose
  • Project Scope
  • Deliverables
  • Cost & Time Schedule Estimates
  • Ownership and Authority
what are the resources to manage
What are the Resources to Manage?






design bid build contract
Design-bid-build contract

General conditions


Bill of quantities



design bid build cont d
Design-bid-build Cont’d
  • Owner
    • Consultant




Contract Types

  • Fixed prices or lump sum contract
  • Reimbursable type
  • Fixed Price Contract:
  • Defined scope
  • The type used for supply of materials & equipment
  • The red-book model
  • Reimbursable type:
  • Applicable when scope is not clearly defined
  • Contractor to be reimbursed for both direct and indirect costs
project time management processes
Project Time Management Processes

Project time management involves the processes required to ensure timely completion of a project. Processes include:

  • Activity definition
  • Activity sequencing
  • Activity duration estimating
  • Schedule development
  • Schedule control
activity definition
Activity Definition

Project schedules grow out of the basic document that initiates a project:

  • Project data includes start and end dates and
  • Budget information
  • Scope statement and WBS help define what will be done

Activity definition involves developing a more detailed WBS and supporting explanations to understand all the work to be done so you can develop realistic duration estimates

  • Gantt or bar charts
  • Network analysis
    • The arrow diagram
    • The precedence diagram
    • Critical path analysis
    • Techniques for shortening a project schedule
simple example project planning gilland chart
Simple example (Project Planning…Gilland Chart):
  • A series of activities plotted on a time-scale
  • Each activity has an assumed definite start, duration and end
  • Activities could be either related or independent
  • All activities must be complete before the total project is complete.
  • The level of detail could be enlarged or reduced.
  • The completion date could move backwards or forwards depending upon intermediate results
  • Progress could be shown against each activity.
  • The plan could be reviewed from time to time to suit changed conditions.
  • This activity:
  • Can not start before mid-Feb.
  • Must be completed by mid-April.
  • It will take about 4 weeks to complete.



The term “float” implies that the activities have certain freedoms.

Float time is not free time Responsibility

basic types of time relationships
Basic types of time relationships:
  • An activity (successor) requires its (pre decessor) to be complete before it can start
  • Two activities must be complete before a successor can start. The two activities run in parallel

A finish – to – start relationship

A finish – to – finish relationship

A start – to – start relationship


Resources on a bar chart








  • Resources required:
  • Manpower (different types)
  • Equipment
  • Cash
  • Subcontractors (different types)
the plant site relationship variability in basic requirements
The plant-site relationship:Variability in basic requirements :
  • Area requirements, m2
  • Water requirements, m3 /hr
  • Utility requirements

Electrical power


Natural gas

Waste disposal( gas, liquid, solid )

  • Special Labor requirements

N.B: Mention Clusters & 14 Factors (not constant)

global manufacturing location decision
Global Manufacturing Location Decision

Country Factors

Favorable economic, political, cultural conditions

Technological Factors

Fixed costs relatively low

Minimum efficient scale

Scale of output a plant needs to realize scale-economies

Market demand must be sufficient to reach this scale

Flexible manufacturing-lean production-mass customization

Product features

Value-to-weight ratio

Universal needs

1 information required to select a site
1. Information required to select a site

1.1 Maps and surveys

Maps Surveys

source surveying contractor

scale benchmark

date contours

The Egyptian Survey Authority

1 information required to select a site1
1. Information required to select a site

1.2 Topography, Terrain and soil properties

  • Topographical maps
  • Site terrain ( sand, rock , march) will influence cost of construction
  • Soil investigations
    • Soil investigation contractors
    • Soil investigation reporting
magnitude of the problem 2
Magnitude of the problem (2)

Industry-Environment P-S-R Model

  • Pressures on the Environment
  • Air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • Soil pollution
  • State of the environment and natural resources:
  • Local
  • Regional
  • National
  • Global
  • Responses:
  • Government
  • Society
  • Industry
  • Regarding:
  • Existing plants
  • New plants
statement of the problem
Statement of the problem

Siting of chemical process plants

1. Two risk domains

2. Three layers of interaction



Industry internal risk

Industry external risk


The field of technological risk assessment

The field of land-use planning


definitions of risk
Definitions of Risk

The Seveso II Directive defines “risk” as follows:

Risk: the likelihood of a specific effect occurring within a specified period or in specified circumstances

The definition according to ISO/IEC 51 reads:

Risk: the combination of the frequency or probability of occurrence and the consequence of a specified hazardous event.

Risk Assessment:

Risk Assessment: the overall process comprising a risk analysis (the systematic use of available information to identify hazards and to estimate the risk) and risk evaluation (procedure whether the desirable level of risk has been achieved)

Risk Management:

Risk Management: Systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to the tasks of analyzing, evaluating and controlling risks

land use planning
Land use planning

“Land Use Planning” can be defined as “a systematic assessment of alternative patterns of land use and other physical, social and economic conditions, for the purpose of selecting a land-use option which is most beneficial to land users without degrading the resources or the environment..”

Land Use Planning has to be understood as an aspect of “spatial planning”


Individual risk: --- Risk Contours

ISO-risk contours represent the geographical variation of the risk for a hypothetical individual who is positioned at a pacticular location for 24 hrs/day, 365 days / year.

LSIR: Location specific individual risk

general factors in planning layouts
General Factors in Planning Layouts:
  • New site development vs. addition to a previously developed site.
  • Future expansion.
  • Economic distribution of services – water, steam, power, gas.
  • Weather conditions, outdoor vs. indoor construction.
  • Safety considerations – possible hazard of fire, explosion or fumes.
  • Building code requirements.
  • Waste Disposal Problems.
  • Sensible use of Floor & Elevation Space.
data requirements for the preparation of a conceptual layout
Data Requirements for the preparation of a conceptual layout:
  • Equipment list with approximate dimensions.
  • Process flow sheets or preliminary P & ID’s showing relative elevations.
  • Off-site requirements – buildings, tank farms, diked areas,railroads, cooling towers, storage areas,
  • Hazard considerations.
  • Process buildings and/or structure requirements (open/closed).
  • Future expansion considerations.

Low Hazard

Process Areas

600 x 500 ft.



300 x 600 ft.


200 x 200 ft.

200 ft.

Property Line

Total Land Area = 45 acres


100 ft.

100 ft.

1300 ft.


200 ft.



100 ft.

Spacing around flare based on radiant heat calculations

200 x 600 ft.


200 x 300 ft.

Spacing based on local building codes


200 x 300 ft.


1500 ft.

important equipments mentioned
Important Equipments Mentioned
  • Drum
  • Pumps
  • Reactors
  • Towers
  • Pipe Racks

N.B : Installation and Precautions

why reliability operational excellence is biggest profit contributor
Why reliability?Operational Excellence is biggest profit contributor

Company Profit

Operational Excellence is biggest controllable contributor to sustainable profit.



Reliability Excellence

Operational Excellence needs a reliable foundation:

  • People Processes
  • ToolsMetrics
  • Mention KPI

ABB Confidential and Proprietary Information

aberdeen s methodology end user investigation pace framework


External and internal forces that impact an organization’s

market position, competitiveness, or business operations.


The strategic approaches that an organization takes in

response to industry pressures.


The business competencies (organization, process, etc…)

required to execute corporate strategy.


The key technology solutions required to support the

organization’s business practices.

Aberdeen’s MethodologyEnd-User Investigation: PACE Framework





decisions for asset lifecycle management
Decisions for Asset Lifecycle Management

Asset reliability and maintenance


New asset procurement


Spare parts management


Asset repair / refurbish / overhaul


Training and certification


Asset commissioning


Asset decommissioning


Safety - Employee and Asset


Environment and energy management







Survey Question: Please describe which of the following decisions you influence?