How to use the stages of change. Tara Walton. The Transtheoretical Model. Objectives. R eview the 4 constructs of the TTM R eview the 5 stages of b ehavior change L earn how to apply TTM to change a behavior Review strengths and limitations of TTM.
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How to use thestages of change Tara Walton The Transtheoretical Model
Objectives • Review the 4 constructs of the TTM • Review the 5 stages of behavior change • Learn how to apply TTM to change a behavior • Review strengths and limitations of TTM
Stages of Change/Transtheoretical Model (TTM) • A model used to explain individual behavior change • Consists of 4 main constructs:
1. The Stages of Change Termination
2. The Processes of Change • The covert and overt activities that people use to progress through stages (Prochaska et al., 2002) • These strategies can be: • Cognitive • Affective • Behavioural • Application to specific stages can facilitate movement • Processes can help guide development of stage-specific interventions
3. Decisional Balance • Relative weighing of the costs and benefits of changing the behaviour • motivation/readiness to change varies with each stage, relative to the balance of pro’s versus con’s of changing
4. Self-efficacy • The situation-specific confidence that you have in your ability to change the behaviour
Applying the Stages of Change WHEN HOW The stages of change help identify WHENa person is ready to change Self efficacy, decisional balance, & process of change help to explain HOW to facilitate movement through the stages of change
Precontemplation to Contemplation This illustration can be used as educational material to help an individual understand some of the costs of sleep deprivation
Stimulus Control This process includes using avoidance, environmental reengineering, and self-help groups Example: Tips to help you sleep • Keep a regular sleep/wake schedule • Avoid caffeine 4-6 hrsbefore bed • Minimize daytime use • Avoid alcohol/heavy meals before bed • Get regular exercise • Minimize noise, light & excess temperatures where you sleep
Strengths of TTM • Individual focus: can be personally tailored • Recognizes behaviour change as dynamic and non-linear • Can help identify readiness to change • Link between stages & processes allows for targeted interventions
Limitations of TTM • Does not consider: • environmental factors • social determinants • Focuses on primary prevention • Reducing risks vs preventing risks • May not be applicable to: • Specific populations • Complex health behaviors • Population health interventions
Summary of the TTM • People move through different stages over time • Movement depends on: • the balance of pro’s and con’s • a person’s self-efficacy • Processes of change help move through stages • The model can be: • useful for facilitating individual behavior change • difficult to apply at the population health level
Resources • Cancer prevention research center: • http://www.uri.edu/research/cprc/TTM/detailedoverview.htm • Mississippi State University: • http://www2.msstate.edu/%7Ebhunt/Stages_of_Change_Theory/transtheoretical.html • Prochaska, J. O. & DiClemente, C. C. (1984). The transtheoretical approach: Crossing traditional boundaries of treatment. Melbourne, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company. • Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C., and Norcross, J.C. 1992. In Search of How People Change: Applications to Addictive Behaviors. American Psychologist 47(9): 1102-1114. • Prochaska, J.O., Johnson, S., and Lee, P. The Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change. In: Shumaker, S.A., Schron, E.B., Ockene, J.K., and McBee, W.L. [Editors]. 1998. The Handbook of Health Behavior Change, 2nd Ed. Springer Publishing Company.