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The “New” Immigrants. Southern & Eastern Europeans After 1882. The “New Immigrants”. Polish Immigrants. Poland divided between German, Austrian & Russian empires In all 3 commercial agriculture, industrialization & population increase pushed surplus ag . labor off the land

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the new immigrants

The “New” Immigrants

Southern & Eastern Europeans After 1882

polish immigrants
Polish Immigrants
  • Poland divided between German, Austrian & Russian empires
  • In all 3 commercial agriculture, industrialization & population increase pushed surplus ag. labor off the land
  • 3 phases of Polish immigration:
    • 1870 – 93: German sector
      • Artisans, intellectuals, lower gentry & farmers
      • Ended by U.S. depression & improved conditions in Germany
    • 1890 – 1914: Russian sector
      • Smallholders & ag. wage laborers; some small town folk
      • Ended by World War I
    • 1880 – 1914: Austrian sector
      • Peasants, day laborers & servants
      • Ended by World War I
za chlebem for bread
ZaChlebem: For Bread
  • Migrants moved in search of work, pulled by urbanization & industrialization
    • Left depressed rural areas for commercial & industrial ones
    • Went from rural to urban areas
  • Seen as necessary sacrifice to preserve family
    • Viewed destination as God’s provision through Mary’s intervention on behalf of suffering Catholics
    • Not poorest of poor, but upwardly mobile peasants
  • Gov’t attitudes & private opinions mixed
    • Germany tried to replace Poles with Germans
    • Russia & Austria tried to keep cheap labor supply
polish immigrants in america
Polish Immigrants in America
  • 2.5 million Poles came to the U.S. in late 19th – early 20th century
    • Few had craft skills or factory experience – mostly farmers & day laborers
    • Vast majority became unskilled factory labor in U.S.
  • Factory managers simultaneously reinforced & repressed ethnic identities
    • Ethnic segregation of dept.s used to impede unionization
    • Changed names, dress, language, etc. to achieve conformity
polonias
Polonias
  • Polonias = attempt to recreate traditional Polish village
    • Failed due to increased social & geographic mobility
    • Middle class fought with clergy for control of churches & communities
    • Polish Catholic nationalism promoted as alternative to labor radicalism
  • Rev. Francis Hodur founded Polish National Catholic Church in 1904
    • 30 parishes & 30,000 members by 1916
  • ¾ of all immigrants belonged to nationalist fraternal organizations by 1910
    • Polish Roman Catholic Union (1873)
    • Polish National Alliance (1880)
    • Polish Falcons (1887)

1910 Polish Steelworker’s Home, Pittsburgh

(recreated at John Heinz History Center)

italian immigrants
Italian Immigrants
  • Divided into 2 phases:
    • Early immigration from the North (Venetia, Lombardy, Piedmont)
    • 1890s-1910s immigration from the South (Basilicata, Calabria, Sicily)
  • 1875-1915: 14 million left Italy – 9/10 to rest of Europe
    • 2/3 left temporarily
    • 2.1 million Italians arrived in U.S., 1901-1910, but only 1.3 million in 1910 census
little italy
Little Italy
  • Naples was largest immigrant -sending port by 1907
  • 30%-50% return migration rate
  • 97% of all Italians after 1880 entered through NYC
      • NYC had almost 400,000 Italians by 1920 (1/4 of all Italian Americans)
  • Men outnumbered women 3:1
    • Mostly manual laborers
    • Padroni (labor contractors) exploited them shamelessly
  • Localist traditions (campanilismo) hampered formation of ethnic fraternal organizations

Little Italy, New York City