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International Approaches (Ch. 21). ConBio. Funding International Efforts. 1) Private Foundations 2) Government Agencies 3) NGOs. Fig. 21.8. Note TNC $ X 10 (MOST!). Funding International Efforts. 1) Private Foundations 2) Government Agencies 3) NGOs

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Funding international efforts
Funding International Efforts

  • 1) Private Foundations

  • 2) Government Agencies

  • 3) NGOs

Fig. 21.8

Note TNC $

X 10 (MOST!)


Funding international efforts1
Funding International Efforts

  • 1) Private Foundations

  • 2) Government Agencies

  • 3) NGOs

  • Support Global Environment Facility (GEF) of World Bank

  • 2011: $330 million new grants


Funding international efforts2
Funding International Efforts

  • How ensure money well-spent?

  • Look for the “4 Cs”

    • Concern: Genuine concern for solving problem?

    • Contracts: Mutually agreeable and enforceable contracts?

    • Capacity: Institutions, personnel, infrastructure to carry out project?

    • Causes: Underlying causes addressed?


Funding international efforts3
Funding International Efforts

  • Another way to fund conservation: debt-for-nature swaps

    • Developing countries: huge debt ($1.3 trillion, 44% GNP)

    • Buy debt (pay 5-20% face value)

    • Forgive debt if country:

      • Puts land into parks, and/or,

      • Puts money into conservation


International development and conservation
International Development and Conservation

  • Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs): International banks loan money for development

    • Official goal sustainable development


Mdb problem examples
MDB problem examples

  • 1) Indonesia Transmigration Program

    • $560 million: move people to forested outer islands

    • To farm, feed selves, pay off loans with farm products

Indonesia: #5 in population!

2 hotspots: Sundaland and

Wallacea!


Mdb problem examples1
MDB problem examples

  • 1) Indonesia Transmigration Program

    • Soils infertile, shifting agriculture (“slash-and-burn ag”) developed

    • Loss 2-6 million ha tropical forest

    • Ethnic violence/political instability


Mdb problem examples2
MDB problem examples

  • What country contains greatest area of tropical rain forest?

2020

2001


Mdb problem examples3
MDB problem examples

  • 2) Brazilian highways

    • Roads: rain forest

    • Project continues (Fig. 21-10)

2020

2001

Fig. 21-11


Mdb problem examples4
MDB problem examples

  • 3) Dams

    • 3 Gorges Dam (Yangtze River): China

Box 21.2


Mdb problem examples5
MDB problem examples

  • 3) Dams

    • 3 Gorges Dam (Yangtze River): China

    • Flood control, hydropower, water, navigation

    • 1 million people displaced

    • Effects biodiversity?


Mdb problems
MDB problems

  • Result: Some projects opposed by some environmental groups


Mdb changes
MDB changes

  • 1) Funding environmental projects

  • 2) Requiring environmental assessments

  • 3) Monitoring protection compliance before more funding

  • See text for mixed message…….

Tamed??


$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

  • Final words on funding:

    • $6.5 billion/yr spent on biodiversity (global)

    • $245 billion/yr: agricultural subsidies (U.S.)

    • $1 trillion: defense (U.S.)


Wrapping up
Wrapping Up…

  • Final: Dec. 9, 12-1:45 pm (all mc/matching)

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