Week of January 13, 2014 Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
D.A.S.H. • DATE: January 15, 2014 • AGENDA: 1) Chapter 8 Section 1 notes then if time permits we can start Section 2 notes. 2) View video over the Harlem Renaissance. 3) Time remaining continue work on Chapters 8 through 10 assignment. • STATE OBJECTIVE:1. Examine the economic, political, and social transformations between the World Wars. A. Cite specific textual and visual evidence to describe modern forms of cultural expression including the Harlem Renaissance, the Jazz Age, and “talkies” (movies). • HOMEWORK/CLASSWORK: Continue work on the assignment. As you are working consider a topic or topics that you think would be good for a research project. Let me know by the end of class.
Bell ringer 3 • 1. What was the National Origins Act? • 2. Who were the flappers? • 3. What was the charges against John T. Scopes? • 4. What was the 18th Amendment? • 5. What were speakeasies? • BONUS QUESTION: Today is Dr. King’s actual birthday. We celebrate on the third Monday as a federal holiday. Name one fact that you know about Dr. King.
FACTS ABOUT Dr. Martin Luther King • Was spokesperson for the Montgomery Bus Boycott that lasted 381 days. • The “March on Washington” earned him honors as Time magazine’s Man of the Year. This is where he gave his “I Have a Dream” speech. • He was the youngest to receive the Nobel Peace Prize, he was 35. A famous quote from that speech: “I believe that unarmed truth and unconditional love will have the final word in reality. This is why right temporarily defeated is stronger than evil triumphant.”
Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes • A 1925 survey taken in Muncie, Indiana indicates the growing importance of the automobile—21 out of 26 families owned cars but did not have bathtubs! One farm wife explained, “You can’t ride to town in a bathtub.” • Real per capita earnings soared 22 percent between 1923 and 1929. Mass production, the production of large quantities of goods using machinery and often an assembly line, made changes possible by increasing supply and reducing costs. • The assembly line was a production system with machines and workers arranged so that each person performs an assigned task again and again as the item passes. This divided operations into simple tasks and cut unnecessary motion to a minimum. Henry Ford installed the first assembly line in 1913. The following year, workers were building an automobile every 93 minutes. By 1925, a Ford car was rolling off every 10 seconds! From 1908 to 1912, the Model T was available in 4 colors—red, blue, gray and green. Black was the only color available from 1914 to 1927. In 1908, the Model T sold for $850 and with mass production the price dropped to $450 n 1914. Workers’ wages were increased to $5 a day to gain their loyalty and by 1924 millions of Model Ts were sold at $295!
Notes continued • More Americans had disposable income (more money to spend after bills) and bought the latest consumer products—electric razors, facial tissues, frozen foods, home hair color, deodorants, mouthwash, cosmetics and perfumes were a few of the items purchased. Labor saving devices were developed such as electric irons, vacuum cleaners, washing machines and refrigerators. • In 1918, the world’s first airmail service was started and in 1925 the Kelly Act authorized postal officials to hire private airplane operators to carry mail. The Air Commerce Act of 1926 provided federal aid to build airports. The first transatlantic solo flight by Charles Lindbergh banished doubt about the potential of aircraft. By 1928, 48 airlines were serving 355 American cities.
Notes continued • In 1913 American engineer Edwin Armstrong invented a special circuit that made it practical to transmit sound via long-range radio. KDKA in Pittsburgh was provided one of the first public broadcasts in history—news of Harding’s landside election victory in 1920. • In 1926 the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) set up a network of stations to broadcast daily radio programs. By 1927, almost 700 stations dotted the country. In 1928 the Columbia Broadcasting Company (CBS) assembled a coast-to-coast network of stations to rival NBC. The first presidential election campaign to use radio was in 1928 when the networks sold more than 1 million dollars of advertising to the Republican and Democratic parties.
Notes continued • Higher wages and shorter workdays resulted in a decade-long buying spree that kept the economy booming. Credit had been available before the 1920’s but debt was considered shameful. Now with more disposable income people changed their thoughts and began believing in their ability to pay their debts over time. “Buy now and pay in easy installments” convinced many to accumulate debt. Easy credit terms and the installment plan led Americans to buy 75% of their radios and 60 % of their automobiles on the installment plan. • Another booming industry was advertising. Advertisers linked products with qualities associated with the modern era, such as progress, convenience, leisure, success, and style.
Notes concluded • American farmers did not share in the prosperity of the 1920’s. On average they earned less than one-third of the income of other American workers. Between 1920 and 1921, corn and wheat prices declined considerably. Costs for improved farming technology continued to increase. • Many factors contributed to this “quiet depression” in American agriculture. 1) The government had urged farmers to meet the great need for food in Europe. The farmers borrowed heavily to buy more land and equipment to raise more crops. 2) After the war Europeans had little cash to spend on American farm products. 3) The Fordney-McCumber Act of 1922 raised tariffs dramatically. This dampened the American market for foreign goods and sparked a reaction in foreign markets against buying American agricultural products. • President Coolidge didn’t help—he vetoed bills that would have helped the farmers. He felt that money given for relief would create greater surpluses and not solve the crisis. Agriculture remained in recession throughout the 1920’s.