SUNY Lifesaver Program Student Manual. Use Page Down and Page Up Button to navigate this manual. Preparation for the Course
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Please read this manual carefully and review the related DVD. The manual will take you through the important information related to CPR and use of an Automated External Defibrillator or AED. The DVD will familiarize you with the skills so that you will be ready to practice when you arrive in class. It will only take about 30 minutes!
As you can see, this manual has both a written and audio component with visuals to help you learn these lifesaving skills. This approach to education will help maximize your learning and retention of the core skills. If you would rather not listen to the audio, simply turn down the volume on your speakers.
Preparation is the
key to success!
The primary message for the SUNY Lifesaver Program is simple; Early CPR and Early Defibrillation save the lives of victims of sudden cardiac arrest! You have chosen to serve as a SUNY Lifesaver and we appreciate your commitment. Remember, the skills you learn in this course are not just for the workplace or school setting. They can be valuable at home for loved ones and friends. Hopefully you will never have to use these skills but if you do it could be one of the most rewarding and important experiences of your life.
Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Each year approximately 340,000 people die from sudden cardiac arrest. That equals about 900 people a day!
The most common cause of sudden cardiac arrest is an abnormal heart rhythm called ventricular fibrillation or VF. VF is a chaotic, quivering heart that results in no blood flow to vital organs. If left untreated most people will die within 6 minutes. However, if CPR is performed immediately and an electric shock of the heart called defibrillation is provided early, the heart can convert back to a normal rhythm, restoring blood flow to vital organs. In fact, the only effective treatments for VF are CPR and defibrillation of the heart.
Ventricular Fibrillation (VF)
Survival from sudden cardiac arrest is very time dependant. Every minute that passes from the moment of collapse until defibrillation is administered will reduce the chance for survival by about 7 to 10 percent. During that time CPR can help deliver blood to vital organs until the heart is restored to an effective rhythm by shocking the heart with a defibrillator.
For this program to be successful three things must occur.
1. You much watch the video carefully and perform the skill exactly as shown on the screen paying close attention to each detail.2. You must continue to practice as long as the skill is shown on the screen. The key to learning is consistent and repetitive practice! 3. You will practice skills one more time at the end of the program to reinforce and remember each part.
Watch - Practice - Practice
When encountering a collapsed victim you should start by checking to see if the victim is responsive by tapping the victim’s shoulder and shouting “Are you alright”. Does the victim respond? Does the victim move? If the victim does not wake or move, you must quickly direct someone, “Go call the Emergency Response System and get an AED”. If you are alone, call the emergency response number, get an AED, and come back. You should be familiar with your facilities number. Hopefully, more times than not, you will not be alone. If you do send someone, you should perform CPR until that person returns with the AED.
Call Emergency Response Number
Know your local emergency response number.
Check for Response
Once you send someone to call and get the AED check to see if the victim is breathing. Put one hand on the forehead and two fingers on the boney part of the chin. Tilt the head back and lift the chin. Place your ear and cheek next to the victim’s mouth and nose and listen and feel for air movement. Also look for chest rise.
Check for BreathingLook carefully at the position of the rescuer’s fingers on the chin and hand on the forehead.
If there is no air movement or chest rise, provide two rescue breaths using the mouth to mask device. Position the mask, seal the upper portion with your index finger and thumb. Pinch the lower portion between your thumb and two fingers at the base of the chin. Tilt the head way back and provide a rescue breath through the opening at the top of the mask while observing for chest rise.
Rescue BreathingLook carefully at the position of the rescuer’s hands on the mask device. Also note the head tilt and observation of chest rise.
After delivering two breaths begin chest compressions. Remove clothing, place your hands between the victim’s two nipples, position your shoulders over your hands and begin compressions. Once again, compress hard and compress fast at a rate of 100 compressions per minute. Be sure to allow the chest wall to return to its normal position after each compression. Move the breastbone approximately 1 ½ to 2 inches.
Chest Compressions Look carefully at the position of the rescuer’s body, arms, and hands.
Call Emergency Response Number/Get AED
Check for Response
Check for Breathing
Until Chest rises
Hard and Fast
30 compressions and 2 breaths
Using an AED may seem like a challenging skill but it is truly the easiest part of this program. An AED is a computerized defibrillator that talks you through the procedure of defibrillation. Once you turn the device on by opening the cover, it will instruct you to remove clothing and attach the AED pads. The machine will then advise you to clear the victim and proceed to analyze the victim’s heart rhythm. If the victim is in ventricular fibrillation it will charge and deliver a shock to the victim’s heart. You will be instructed to start CPR. The machine will actually coach you through the procedure of CPR. You will continue the process of CPR, analysis of the rhythm until one of two things happen. The victim wakes up and begins to move or EMS arrives on the scene and advises you to stop CPR. It is really that simple.
Turn on AED
It is that simple!
Position the AED next to the victim on the opposite side of the CPR rescuer. Open the case and follow the instructions. Unwrap the pads…remove the covering from the pads surface…place them as directed by the AED. Look carefully at the picture below to see the proper position of the electrode pads. This position allows the electrical current to travel through the heart and help convert the victim’s heart rhythm.
Once the pads are attached…stop CPR…clear everyone from the victim and allow the device to analyze the rhythm. If the heart is in a rhythm that requires a shock, the machine will automatically charge. Again, make sure that everyone is clear of the victim, including yourself. It will warn of the shock and deliver a single shock. After the shock immediately start chest compressions and provide 5 cycles of CPR. This will take approximately 2 minutes.
At the end of 5 cycles the machine will prompt you to reanalyze the rhythm. When this occurs, stop CPR and allow the machine to analyze. The machine will either shock the victim or advise to perform CPR. Again simply follow the instructions. Let’s review the steps one more time:Summary of Steps of AED Operation
There are special situations that may have to be addressed when using an AED. These include victims; with a hairy chest, those that are found in water, those with an implanted pacemaker-defibrillator, or those who are wearing a medication patch.
Hairy Chest - When a victim has a very hairy chest the electrode pad may not adhere to the skin. If this occurs the device will prompt you to check the electrode. In this situation, press firmly on each electrode and allow the AED to re-analyze the heart rhythm. If the message occurs again, remove the electrode pads, quickly shave the chest with the razor in your kit and apply a second set of electrodes.
Water - Water is a good conductor of electricity. If the victim is lying in water they should be moved to a dry location to avoid injuring rescuers. The chest of the victim should also be dried with a towel before attaching the electrode pads.
Implanted Pacemaker-Defibrillator - A victim may be found with a “lump” on his or her chest wall in the same location as where an AED electrode is applied. The lump will look like the shape of a deck of cards under the skin. If this is noted place the AED pads approximately an inch away from the pacemaker.
Medication Patch - A victim may be found with a medication patch placed on their chest such as a nicotine or nitroglycerin patch. This can interfere with the function of the AED electrode pad. If you note a patch, remove it and clean the area with a dry towel.
Every year approximately 3,900 people die from choking. Management of a choking episode is fairly simple and involves recognition and actions. When you encounter someone who appears to be choking ask, “Are you choking.” If he or she nods their head but cannot speak, perform abdominal thrusts just above the navel and well below the breastbone until the person can speak or cough. If the victim becomes unconscious, perform CPR. When you are opening the airway to breathe, look for a foreign body. If you see it, remove it.
The good news is that Child CPR is almost exactly the same as adult CPR. The only significant difference is that you decrease the depth of chest compressions and breathe less volume into the lungs. When providing rescue breathing, breathe until the chest rises. When compressing the chest move the breastbone about 1/3 to 1/2 the distance of the chest from front to back. The compression rate remains at 100 compressions per minute and the ratio of compressions to ventilations remains at 30:2. With smaller children, you can use one arm to perform compressions.
The use of AEDs on children is also the same as an adult. For the purposes of AED use, a child is defined as someone who is 1 to 8 years of age. The only difference is that the child pads are used which reduce the delivered energy to the heart. You should be careful not to use child AED pads on adults since the energy may not be sufficient to convert the heart rhythm. The pads are placed in the same position as an adult. However, some AEDS recommend an alternate position with one pad in front and the other pad in back. Check the manufactures recommendation on your device. At this time the American Heart Association does not recommend for or against the use of AEDs for infants less than one year of age.
The main differences when performing CPR on an infant victim is that you breathe less during rescue breathing and compress less during chest compressions. You use your fingers rather your hand to compress the chest. When compressing the chest move the breastbone about 1/3 to 1/2 the distance of the chest from front to back. The compression rate remains at 100 compressions per minute and the ratio of compressions to ventilations remains at 30:2.
Answer:CPR and defibrillation
For every minute that passes without CPR and/or defibrillation, how much will the chance for survival decrease for victims of sudden cardiac arrest?
Answer:7 to 10% per minute
Answer:Check for response, send someone to call the emergency response number and get the AED.
Answer:The chest rises with each breath.