Six principles of effective mathematics teaching. Peter Sullivan Monash University. NT 2012. First, let us consider this task sequence. The following sequence seeks to introduce students to the nature of volume of prisms and cylinders (area of the end × length)

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Six principles of effective mathematics teaching

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First, let us consider this task sequence • The following sequence seeks to introduce students to • the nature of volume of prisms and cylinders (area of the end × length) • surface area of prisms (total area of the faces) • efficient methods of calculating volume and surface area of rectangular prisms • ways in which surface area and volume are different NT 2012

Key teaching idea 1: • Identify big ideas that underpin the concepts you are seeking to teach, and communicate to students that these are the goals of your teaching, including explaining how you hope they will learn NT 2012

Using the content descriptions • Get clear in your mind what you want the students to learn • Make your own decisions about how to help them learn that content • Overall • what do these suggest are the overall goals, the big ideas, the important focus, etc NT 2012

AC content descriptions: Using Units of measurement • Year 6 • Connect volume and capacity and their units of measurement • Year 7 • Calculate volumes of rectangular prisms • Year 8 • Choose appropriate units of measurement for area and volume and convert from one unit to another • Develop the formulas for volumes of rectangular and triangular prisms and prisms in general. Use formulas to solve problems involving volume • Year 9 • Calculate the surface area and volume of cylinders and solve related problems • Solve problems involving surface area and volume of right prisms NT 2012

In the Australian curriculum • Understanding • (connecting, representing, identifying, describing, interpreting, sorting, …) • Fluency • (calculating, recognising, choosing, recalling, manipulating, …) • Problem solving • (applying, designing, planning, checking, imagining, …) • Reasoning • (explaining, justifying, comparing and contrasting, inferring, deducing, proving, …) NT 2012

The proficiencies – why do we change from “working mathematically”? • These actions are part of the curriculum, not add ons • Mathematics learning and assessment is more than fluency • Problem solving and reasoning are in, on and for mathematics • All four proficiencies are about learning NT 2012

Choosing tasks will be a key decisions • If we are seeking fluency, then clear explanations followed by practice will work • If we are seeking understanding, then very clear and interactive communication between teacher and students and between students will be necessary • If we want to foster problem solving and reasoning, then we need to use tasks with which students can engage, which require them to make decisions and explain their thinking NT 2012

Key teaching idea 2: • Build on what the students know, both mathematically and experientially, including creating and connecting students with stories that both contextualise and establish a rationale for the learning NT 2012

What % of Year 5 Victorians can do this? • A rectangular paddock has a perimeter of 50 metres. Each long side has a length of 15 metres. • What is the length of each short side? metres NT 2012

56% of students could do this • A rectangular paddock has a perimeter of 50 metres. Each long side has a length of 15 metres. • What is the length of each short side? metres NT 2012

This tells us • Around half of the year 5 students are ready for challenging tasks about perimeter • Very few year 7 students have a sense of volume NT 2012

Key teaching idea 3 • Engage students by utilising a variety of rich and challenging tasks, that allow students opportunities to make decisions, and which use a variety of forms of representation NT 2012

Key teaching idea 4: • Interact with students while they engage in the experiences, and specifically planning to support students who need it, and challenge those who are ready NT 2012

Key teaching idea 5: • Adopt pedagogies that foster communication, mutual responsibilities, and encourage students to work in small groups, and using reporting to the class by students as a learning opportunity NT 2012