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S&T Priorities: Towards a Taxonomy of Policy Models. Manuel Mira Godinho (ISEG/UTLIsbon) João Caraça (Gulbenkian Foundation) Presentation to the Tampere 6 June 2008. Structure of the Presentation. Part 1  “Priority Setting in S&T” Part 2  Analysis of different national priorities in S&T.

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S t priorities towards a taxonomy of policy models

S&T Priorities:Towards a Taxonomy of Policy Models

Manuel Mira Godinho (ISEG/UTLIsbon)

João Caraça (Gulbenkian Foundation)

Presentation to the

Tampere 6 June 2008


Structure of the presentation
Structure of the Presentation

Part 1  “Priority Setting in S&T”

Part 2  Analysis of different national priorities in S&T


Objectives
Objectives

  • What are and how are S&T priorities defined by different countries?


What priority setting in s t is
What “Priority-setting in S&T” is?

A process of strategic nature that aims at:

  • increasing the returns on public investments in research

  • increasing the relevance of research for economic objectives (competitiveness, growth, welfare…)

  • linking research with a society’s long-term aims


Examples of past s t priorities
Examples of past S&T priorities

  • Nuclear bomb (Manhattan project)

  • Jet aircraft (Germany 2nd WW Luftwaffe)

  • Reach the moon before 1970 (Kennedy ad.)

  • Cancer Cure (Nixon administration)

  • Nuclear power for energy production

  • TGV


Priority areas
Priority Areas

  • Military

  • Health

  • Energy

  • Transportation

  • Food


Technological practical priorities
Technological (practical) priorities…

  • All previous examples (bombs, planes, trains…) are “practical priorities”

  • They relate to “needs” or “practical objectives”

    (such as furthering technological competitivess of a country)

…versus Research (scientific) priorities


Research priorities
Research Priorities

  • Governments  in many countries most of the R&D is carried out with government funds

  • Two questions: How much to allocate to R&D? How to allocate those funds?


Allocation of public resources to research
Allocation of public resources to research

  • What are the priorities of public spending in research?

  • How are they set?

  • What sort of mechanims are used for that purpose?

  • How is the decision-making process shaped?

  • Who are the intervenients?


1 what are the priorities of public investment in research
1. What are the priorities of public investment in research?

  • Qualitative Priorities (Excellency, Internationalization…) versus “areas”

  • Balance Basic versus Apllied R&D

    (balance “technological” versus “scientific” priorities)

  • Define prioritary areas:

    • Which disciplines to prioriatise?

    • Which “end-products” to favour?

    • Seeking shorter-term or longer-term impacts?


2 how are research priorities set
2. How are research priorities set?

  • Priorities can be implicit (stemming from past decisions, no formalisation…)

  • Priorities can be explicit (formal mechanims to formulate them exist and the process of priority setting is recognised as such)


3 what sort of mechanims are used for priority setting
3. What sort of mechanims are used for priority setting?

  • Government (with the help of civil service);

  • Consultative and advisory bodies (higher S&T council; research councils…);

  • Other participatory mechanisms (conferences; clustering initiatives; foresight initiatives)

    “Top down” versus “bottom-up”


4 how is the decision making process shaped
4. How is the decision-making process shaped?

Institutional setting

  • Is there a national “vision” about the future? Does that vision comprehends research?

  • Do business firms know what they want out of the research? Do they have the capacity to influence the national research agenda?

  • Do the military have similar capacity?

  • Does civil society (NGOs…) has mechanisms to affect the research agenda?


5 who are the stakeholders
5. Who are the stakeholders?

  • Government, Business, Military, NGOs

    +

  • Parliament

  • Media

  • International organisations

    +

  • Scientists (Big research institutes; disciplines; influential individuals…)


Is priority setting in s t on the policy agenda
Is priority setting in S&T on the policy agenda?

  • Interest on “priority setting” has changed over time

  • It used to be an important issue

  • For some time dominated the view that governments had no capacity to define “priorities” and that they should limite to provide conditions for an “excellent research”

  • More recently: Renewed interest

  • Foresight exercises etc


Part 2 wip
Part 2 (WIP)

  • Publication and R&D Patterns

  • Cluster Analysis

  • Results coherent


3 steps
3 steps

  • 1st step: Analysis of Scientific Publications

  • 2nd step: Analysis of SP + Socio-Economic objectives of Public Spending in R&D

  • 3rd step: Analysis of SP + SEO + Weight of government financed R&D on GERD


1st step analysis of scientific publications
1st step: Analysis of Scientific Publications

  • “Health Papers”  Medicine, Biomedical Sciences, Other Health Sciences, Biology

  • “E&T Papers”  Engineering & Technology Papers, Physics, Chemistry, Mathmatics


S t priorities towards a taxonomy of policy models

CLUSTER 1

CLUSTER 2


S t priorities towards a taxonomy of policy models

STEP 1

CLUSTER 1



2nd step analysis of sp socio economic objectives of public spending in r d
2nd step: Analysis of SP + Socio-Economic Objectives of Public Spending in R&D

  • SEO?

    1) Military R&D (Defence)

    2) Civil R&D: Economic Development

    Health

    Space

    Non-Oriented Funds

    General University Funds

    (NOF + GUF)


S t priorities towards a taxonomy of policy models

3 big clusters Public Spending in R&D8 smaller clusters

E1

C1

E2

E3

C2

E4

E5

E6

C3

E7

E8


S t priorities towards a taxonomy of policy models

Health Public Spending in R&D

Targeted Research

Academic Research

Engineering & Technology


S t priorities towards a taxonomy of policy models

Health Public Spending in R&D

Targeted Research

Academic Research

Engineering & Technology


S t priorities towards a taxonomy of policy models

Health Public Spending in R&D

Targeted Research

Academic Research

E6 UK, France, Sp

E3 Australia, Can,NZ, Finl, Ir, Be,

E2 NL, Dk, No, Sweden, Iceland

Defence + Space 7%

Defence + Space 6%

US

Defence + Space 45%

Engineering & Technology

Korea

E4 Czech R, Slovak R, J, PT

E1 Germany, It, Austria, Switz., Greece, Mex,

Russia


3rd step analysis of sp seo weight of government financed r d on gerd
3rd step: Analysis of SP + SEO + Weight of government financed R&D on GERD

  • Government financed R&D / GERD ?

    [ 1 – (Government Financed R&D/GERD) ] ≈ Private financing of GERD

     The lower… the higher innovation propensity (Y? N?)

     The higher … the higher academic R&D (Y? N?)

     The higher…the higher military innovation (Y? N?)


S t priorities towards a taxonomy of policy models

G2 financed R&D on GERD

G1

G3

G4

G5


S t priorities towards a taxonomy of policy models

Targeted Research financed R&D on GERD

Health

Academic Research

Engineering & Technology


S t priorities towards a taxonomy of policy models

Targeted Research financed R&D on GERD

Health

Academic Research

67%

64%

69%

51%

39%

Private financing of R&D

R > 55% ; B < 55%

Engineering & Technology


S t priorities towards a taxonomy of policy models

Targeted Research financed R&D on GERD

Health

Academic Research

G2 Icel, NL, No, Austria, DK, Switz, Sweden

67%

G3 Australia, Canada, NZ, Finl, Irel, BE, J, K

G4 US, Fr, UK, Sp

64%

69%

51%

G1 PT, Sl R, Greece, It, Cz R, G, Mex

39%

Engineering & Technology

Private financing of R&D

R > 55% ; B < 55%

G5 Russia


Next steps
Next Steps financed R&D on GERD

  • Include more variables (?)

  • Include more countries (?)

  • Develop quantitative analysis

  • Survey of Experts

  • What questions to ask the experts?


S t priorities towards a taxonomy of policy models

END financed R&D on GERD

Thank you!