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Christian Civilizations in Eastern Europe: Byzantium & Orthodox Europe. Chapter 9. Byzantine Empire.
Christian Civilizations in Eastern Europe: Byzantium & Orthodox Europe Chapter 9
Byzantine Empire • The Byzantine Empire with territory in the Balkans, the Middle East, and the eastern Mediterranean, maintained very high levels of political, economic, and cultural life between 500 and 1450 C.E. • The Byzantine Empire, once part of the greater Roman Empire continued flourishing from an eastern Mediterranean base after Roman decline • The empire continued many Roman patterns and spread its Orthodox Christian civilization through most of eastern Europe.
Emperor Constantine in the 4th c. established capital at Constantinople Greek became the official language after the 6th c. The empire benefited from the high level of civilization in the former Hellenistic world (Alexander the Great) and from the region’s prosperous commerce
Important New Center • Constantinople • “Second Rome” • Located on a strait that linked Mediterranean and Black Seas • Key trading route linking Europe, Africa and Asia • Buffer between Western Europe and Asia Hellenistic culture – After Alexander’s death, Greek art, education, and culture merged with those in the Middle East
Byzantine Heritage • Built on the Hellenistic culture • Christian beliefs • Greek science, art and literature • Roman engineering
The Age of Justinian 527-565 • Byzantine empire reached greatest size • Wanted to recover what had been lost during the fall of Rome • Justinian rebuilt Constantinople in classical style; among the architectural achievements was the huge church of Hagia Sophia
Body of Civil Law – Justinian’s codification of Roman law; reconciled Roman edicts and decisions; made Roman law a coherent basis for political and economic life; Justinian’s greatest achievement • The revived empire withstood the 7th c. advance of Arab Muslims, although important regions were lost along the eastern Mediterranean and the northern Middle East
Hagia Sophia – Great domed church constructed during the reign of Justinian
During Middle Ages • Dispute over use of icons (Holy Images) contributed to split • Byzantine Emperor outlawed prayer to icons • Two branches of Christianity grew further apart • 1054 provoked a permanent split between Byzantine, Eastern (Greek) Orthodox and Roman Catholic Church • Iconoclasm – refers to policies or people who oppose the religious use of images and advocate the destruction of such images
West - Rome Pope in Rome Latin Language Most important holy day = Christmas East - Constantinople Patriarch in the Byzantine - rejected Pope’s authority Clergy could marry Greek Language Most important holy day = Easter CHRISTIANS DIVIDED!Divisions in the Church
West vs. East • The final break between the two churches occurred in 1054 over arguments about the type of bread used in the mass and the celibacy of priests
The long decline began in 11th c. • Muslim-Turkish (Seljuk Turks) invaders seized almost all of the empires of Asian provinces, removing the most important sources of taxes and food • Crusaders took Constantinople in 1204 (4th Crusade) • A smaller empire struggled to survive for another two centuries • In 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople
What happened to the Byzantine? • Crusades • Byzantine emperor called for help to fight the Muslims headed for Jerusalem • Muslims took control of northern territories • Muslims eventually took Constantinople andrenamedit Istanbul
Rise of Russia • Ural Mountains provide a physical boundary • Wanted Moscow to be the “Third Rome” • 3 regions helped shape early Russian life • North - Lumber and hunting • South - Fertile land for farming • Steppe- treeless grassland Open to nomads from Asia and Europe
“Steppe Areas” • Great “Highway” • Rivers linked Byzantine to Russia • Vladimir I – ruler of Kiev (980-1015) converted kingdom to orthodox Christianity • Russian Orthodox – Russian form of Christianity brought from the Byzantine Empire
First Civilization • Kievin Present day Ukraine • Home of vital trading networks • Would become the center of the first Russian state • Boyars – Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts • Kiev – Commercial city in Ukraine established by Scandinavians in 9th c.; became the center for a kingdom that flourished until the 12th c.
Kiev and the Byzantine Empire • Trade helped Kiev enter the Byzantine empire • 957 Princess Olga of Kiev converted to Byzantine Christianity • Grandson spread religion which gained strength • Later Prince Vladimir married the Byzantine emperor’s sister for political reasons, thus he accepted Eastern Orthodox Christianity for himself and his people • Russians started to adapt religious art, music, and architecture
Onion Domes Ttype of architectural dome that frequently adorns Russian Orthodox Churches. The domes are often brightly painted; the colors symbolize different aspects of religion. • Green, blue, and gold domes represent the Holy Trinity, the Spirit of God, and Jesus, respectively.
Mongol “Influences” • Mongols - Nomadic people from central Asia; United by Chinnghis Khan • Looted and burned city of Kiev • Russian princes had to pay money to rule without Mongol interference • Mongol rule cut off Russian contacts with Western Europe which were making advances in art and science • Russian Orthodox grows stronger due to religious toleration • Tatars – Mongols who conquered Russian cities during the 13th c.; left Russian church and aristocracy intact
Moscow Takes Lead • With their location near trading rivers, Moscow steadily increased their power • Head of Russian Orthodox church made Moscow capital • Moscow became political and spiritual center of Russia
“Ivan the Great” - Ivan III • Recovered Russian territories that were lost to invaders • Tried to limit the power ofboyars (landowning nobles) • Took on the title of Czar (Russian for Caesar)
“Ivan the Terrible” - Ivan IV • Grandson of Ivan III • Nobles granted land for military service • Tied serfs to land • Introduced Russia to extreme absolute power in Eastern Europe
Byzantine: Greek language Claimed right to appoint the head of the church Did not accept Pope as leader of the church Taxes provided money to run a government & army Western Europe: Latin language in churches Pope had power and the people accepted Trade, town life and learning declined after the fall of Rome Recap
Shaping Eastern Europe • Geography makes the area a “cultural crossroad” • Crusades will bring in Muslims to area
The Least You Need to Know • Byzantine Empire a crossroads of trade and a center of cultural diffusion between the East and the West • Byzantine missionaries spread Orthodox Christianity to the Slavic and Germanic tribes
Continued • The East Slavs migrated to Kiev to form an independent city-state which was later conquered by the Mongols • The principality of Moscow overthrew the Mongols and maintained a strong tie with Byzantine culture, identifying itself by extension with the tradition of imperial Rome