TEACHING APPROACHES/ STRATEGIES AND INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES Round Table Conference Panel Discussion Symposium Forum Debate Forum Workshop Seminar
ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE • Usually a small group seated face to face around a round table and has the characteristics of an informal social gathering. • The number of participants need not be large, six to ten is enough.
Procedure: • Introductory remarks, stating the question problem to be discussed should be interesting and relevant to the contemporary issues. • Statement of the facts of the problem. • Presentation of the agenda. • Group discussion/ exchanging of ideas of each issue in the agenda. • Consideration and deliberation of what action to take as a result of the discussion.
Panel Discussion: Its Guidelines • A panel of five or six members of the class is appointed and be responsible for the discussion of each question. • All participating members should have adequate knowledge of all aspects of the subject for deliberation other than their prepared “speeches”. • Members are given the opportunity to interact freely.
Mechanics: • The members of the panel and the leader are seated at a table facing the audience. • The leader will present the members of the panel and open the discussion by stating the topic. • As the panel completes discussing the topic, the leader summarizes briefly. • At the point, the members of the class are invited to participate by expressing their own views and observations or simply addressing questions to panel members.
Symposium Forum • A form of meeting or a conference for the discussion of some important subjects, at which several speakers discuss a topic before an audience. • More formal in terms of format and presentation. • A public speaking program. • The participants are lead persons or chairmen, moderators.
Guidelines/ Points to consider: • The purpose of the conference • Choosing the topic that arouses and sustains interest • Choosing the speakers • Briefing the speaker/s on the objectives of the symposium and the procedures to be observed
Mechanics: • The moderator should arrange a briefing session with the speakers which should include arrangement of time limit of speeches and the procedures to be observed during the forum. • The moderator introduces the resource speakers during the formal part of the program. • After the speeches of the speakers, the moderator starts the open forum where questions are directed to the speakers. • When there are no questions the forum is adjourned.
Debate Forum • A type of instructional practice which occurs when people with different beliefs on the same problem present issues and discuss the pros and cons and may arrive at different conclusions. • A type of discussion program which is formal in the sense that the participants (debaters) make a prepared speech for or against a proposition. • Composed of two teams of the debaters
Mechanics: • A presenter will take the floor first to present the topic and the two teams: affirmative and negative teams. • Members of the affirmative and negative teams will speak alternately and are given allotted time to present their position urging the adoption or rejection of an affirmative resolution. • The affirmative side will start and close the debate.
Principles in Orthodox debate • First affirmative speaker - 10 mins. • First negative speaker - 10 mins. • Second affirmative speaker - 10 mins. • Second negative soeaker - 10 mins. • First negative rebuttal - 5 mins. • First affirmative rebuttal - 5 mins. • Second negative rebuttal - 5 mins. • Second affirmative rebuttal - 5 mins.
Style of a cross- exam debate • First affirmative speech cross- exam by the second negative First negative speech Cross- exam by the first affirmative Second affirmative speech cross- exam by the first negative Second negative speech cross- exam by second affirmative Summary and refutation by negative Summary and refutation by affirmative
Reminders in debate participation • The attitude of the debater should be properly adjusted in relation to the proposition. • Refuting and answering of opponent’s arguments should be within the parameter of issues of the preposition. • point out that the issues raised are not relevant or important. • show that it is not supported by facts that are valid. • identify and indicate fallacies committed in reasoning.
continuation: • present more and better evidence to support your argument • make every point consistent with those made by his colleagues who are also upholding his view. • supply adequate evidence that can be drawn and used to support one’s position when answering points of the other side • a card- index file with all the important point raised during the debate should be kept.
Workshop • involves group planning particularly group process in identifying, analyzing and solving educational problems and issues.
Mechanics: • Opening Session • Keynote address/ inspirational or opening remarks • Organization of sub- committees • Group Work- presentation and discussion of problems • Consolidation of group reports leading to the formulation of recommended resolutions of the entire conference report • Closing session • evaluation of the input • disposition of the results • planning of the future
Seminar • conducted for the purpose of attempting to solve problem- social, economic, political, cultural & educational • well- defined objective • discussion is centered on an issue / problem on which an answer is arrived at
steps: • identify the problem • gather data and relevant information • synthesize and analyze the data • test the hypothesis • formulate conclusion • proper recommendations
Aids to facilitate good questioning • The Art of Questioning • it is assumed that good teaching involves good questioning
Types of Questions • according to thinking process involves- from low – high level • according to type of answers required • according to the degree of personal exploration or valuing
Descriptive Categories • cognitive memory questions • convergent questions • divergent questions • evaluative questions
Uses of Questions • stimulate the learners to think • motivate student’s interest • diagnose learner’s difficulties • help learners organize, synthesize and evaluate learning • aid the learners to relate pertinent experience • develop new appreciations and attitudes • show relationships such as cause & effect • encourage the learners to apply concepts in meaningful experiences • provide drill and practice • encourage learner evaluation
Characteristics of a good question • should be simple, clear and definitive • should be adapted to the age, abilities and interest of the learners
Classroom Management • this merely signifies classroom discipline