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BELL WORK. Add these vocabulary words to your notes Natural Law – rule or law that governs human nature Social Contract – an agreement by which people give up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos Natural Right – rights that belong to all humans at birth

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bell work

Add these vocabulary words to your notes

  • Natural Law – rule or law that governs human nature
  • Social Contract – an agreement by which people give up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos
  • Natural Right – rights that belong to all humans at birth
  • Philosophe – member of a group of Enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply the methods of science to the improvement of society
  • Physiocrat – Enlightenment thinker who searched for natural laws to explain economics
  • Laissez Faire – policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
the age of invention

Galileo formed part of the basis for developments historians call the Scientific Revolution.

Nicholas Copernicus asserted a heliocentric (sun-centered) cosmos, it ended with Isaac Newton, who proposed universal laws and a Mechanical Universe.

The "Scientific Revolution" refers to historical changes in thought & belief, to changes in social & institutional organization, that unfolded in Europe

 This revolution caused controversies in religion, philosophy, and politics, and ended up changing the way Europeans viewed nature.

The Age of Invention

The Scientific Revolution


change in thinking
Change in Thinking

Renaissance and Reformation- Looked to the past for wisdom and direction

Scientific Revolution- forward thinking toward the physical universe

Scientific Revolution

the age of reason

In his essay "What Is Enlightenment?" (1784), the German philosopher Immanuel Kant summed up the era's motto in the following terms: "Dare to know! Have courage to use your own reason!"

The Age of Reason

The Enlightenment


the age of reason1
The Age of Reason

Thinkers in Britain, in France and throughout Europe questioned traditional authority and embraced the notion that humanity could be improved through rational change.

The purpose was to reform society using reason, challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and advance knowledge through the scientific method.

the age of reason2
The Age of Reason
  • The Enlightenment promoted:
  • Scientific Thought
  • Skepticism and Intellectual Interchange
  • The Enlightenment opposed:
  • Superstition
  • Intolerance
the thinkers behind the movement

Wrote Leviathan, which was an influential work concerning the structure of society and legitimate government.

Leviathan is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory.

Hobbes argues that people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish. If not strictly controlled, they would fight, rob, and oppress on another.

In order to escape the “brutish” life, people entered an agreement(social contract) by which they gave up the state of nature for an organized society.

The Thinkers behind the movement


the thinkers behind the movement1
The Thinkers behind the movement

Viewed humanity more optimistically than Hobbes.

Saw people as basically reasonable and moral. Believed that all people had natural rights, or rights that belonged to all humans from birth.

Including the right to life, liberty and property.

Two Treatises of Government, locked argues that people formed governments to protect their natural rights. The best kind of government had limited power and was accepted by all citizens.


bell work1

In your own words, explain what immanuelkant meant when he wrote – "Dare to know! Have courage to use your own reason!“use 3-5 sentences and explain your answer


the thinkers behind the movement2
The Thinkers behind the movement

In his work The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu created the concept of separation of powers.

He looked to improve society and human life through studying these laws scientifically

According to Montesquieu, there were three types of government: a monarchy, a republic, and a despotism.

Montesquieu believed that a government that was elected by the people was the best form of government. He believed that the success of a democracy depended upon maintaining the right balance of power and a system of checks and balances.


the thinkers behind the movement3
The Thinkers behind the movement

Other famous Philosophes

  • Voltaire
  • Diderot
  • Rousseau

Philosophe is the French word for "philosopher," and was a word that the French Enlightenment thinkers usually applied to themselves

Philosophes were public intellectuals dedicated to solving the real problems of the world.


The Thinkers behind the movement


 French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher. Famous for being witty

Attacked the Catholic Church, and advocated freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.

Voltaire wrote plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets

“My trade is to say what I think”

the thinkers behind the movement4

Diderot is most recognized as the force behind the Encyclopédie, the foremost encyclopedia to be published in France at the eve of the French Revolution

What Diderot accomplished was to create one of the most important books of the Eighteenth Century. For Diderot along with his contributors, the common purpose of which was "to further knowledge and, by so doing, strike a resounding blow against reactionary forces in church and state."

The Thinkers behind the movement


the thinkers behind the movement5
The Thinkers behind the movement

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, known as one of the most influential thinkers during the 18th-century European Enlightenment period.

He was born on June 28, 1712, in Geneva, Switzerland.

His first philosophical work, A Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, discussed how science and arts had caused the corruption of virtue and morality.

Rousseau was also a composer and music theorist.



Class Discussion

How did the social contract and separation of powers affect views on government?

At this time Separation of Powers

was seen as the best possible way

to protect liberty from

government. One branch would

be too powerful, if there are

separate branches: legislative,

executive, and judicial, then each

branch has its own

responsibilities and leads to a

system of checks and balances.

The Social Contract and separation of

powers had a large affect on the views

on government. The Social Contract

was an agreement by which citizens

would give up the state of nature

(absolute freedom) for an organized

society. The organizers of this society

would be the government and would

have to protect citizens from their wild



Class Discussion

2. Explain and discuss the views of Hobbes.

Hobbes had a negative view on human nature; people need to be controlled by a powerful government


Class Discussion

3. Explain and discuss the views of Locke.

Locke thought that people were basically reasonable and moral; they need a limited government to protect their rights


Class Discussion

4. Explain and discuss the views of Montesquieu.

Montesquieu thought that people needed to create government that protects against tyranny through separation of powers.


Class Discussion

5. How did the achievements of the Scientific Revolution contribute to the Enlightenment?

The achievements of the Scientific Revolution contributed to the Enlightenment by leading to greater faith in the power of reason. People began to apply reason to human nature and government as well as to the physical world.