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Environmental Influences on Gender Typing Social Learning Theory Gender typing results from PowerPoint Presentation
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Environmental Influences on Gender Typing Social Learning Theory Gender typing results from

Environmental Influences on Gender Typing Social Learning Theory Gender typing results from

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Environmental Influences on Gender Typing Social Learning Theory Gender typing results from

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Environmental Influences on Gender Typing • Social Learning Theory • Gender typing results from • imitation of same-sex models and reinforcement for this behavior

  2. Parental Behavior • On average, differences in parental treatment of boys and girls are not large • Does not mean that parental behavior is unimportant because: • Younger children receive more direct training in gender roles than older children • Some parents probably practice differential treatment more intensely than others

  3. Parents create different environments for boys and girls beginning in infancy (e.g., bedrooms, toys)

  4. Parents give toys that stress action and competition to boys (e.g., guns, cars, tools, footballs) • Give toys that emphasize nurturance, cooperation, and physical attractiveness to girls (e.g., dolls, tea sets, jewelry, jump ropes)

  5. Parents reinforce independence in boys • React more positively when boys demand attention, run and climb, or try to take toys from others • Parents reinforce closeness/dependency in girls • More likely to direct play activities, provide help, encourage participation in household tasks, and refer to emotions

  6. Fathers tend to treat boys and girls more differently than do mothers • Engage in more physically stimulating play with infant sons than daughters • Less likely to give “girl toys” (e.g., dolls) to sons