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A new dawn for electricity?. Unpacking the role of changing EU and national governance TENTATIVE... Måns Nilsson, Stockholm Environment Institute w contributions from Lars J Nilsson, Lunds Universitet. Study Purpose.

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A new dawn for electricity

A new dawn for electricity?

Unpacking the role of changing EU and national governance


Måns Nilsson, Stockholm Environment Institute

w contributions from Lars J Nilsson, Lunds Universitet

Study purpose
Study Purpose

  • To understand the role of EU and domestic policy in on-going developments in the energy production sector* in Sweden.

A change in orientation the first question
A change in orientation? The first question

  • To what extent and in what ways can we identify a reorientation towards electricity in the current development of the Swedish energy sector?

Investment boom
Investment boom

  • Current pipeline:

  • CHP forecast

    13,2 TWH in 2007 up to 17,5 TWH in 2010. there are extensive existing plans for more CHP, both from biomass and waste incineration. (STEM, 2008)

  • Wind power forecast:

    • 1,4 TWH in 2007 and going up to 3,4 TWh in 2010 (STEM, 2008)

  • Plans add up to 300 billion SEK over 10 years (Swedish Energy)

Strong interest in swedish export potential towards eu
Strong interest in Swedish export potential towards EU

  • Total 185 TWh

  • 100 TWh renewable

  • We ”import” more and more of the continental electricity prices

    (source Profu)

Electricity seen as solution to transport sector climate mobility dilemma in sweden
Electricity seen as solution to transport sector climate / mobility dilemma in Sweden

  • Political concerns on the sustainability and large-scale potential for liquid biofuels (Börjesson, Nilsson et al, 2008)

  • Plug in hybrids – 7 TWh per year (5% of total) takes us all the way to present climate targets in transport sector (Elforsk, 2008).

Heat pumps
Heat Pumps mobility dilemma in Sweden

More positive treatment as RES in EU proposal

More grid capacity planned
More grid capacity planned mobility dilemma in Sweden

Reduced interest in heating
Reduced interest in heating? mobility dilemma in Sweden

  • Efforts into more efficient houses leading to demand decrease

  • STEM forecasts stable or slightly downward trend in heating consumption up to 2010

Markal heat production with 202020
MARKAL heat production with 202020 mobility dilemma in Sweden

Something in the air
Something in the air? mobility dilemma in Sweden

  • Bo Källstrand, former head of Swedenergy, sees:

    “ a change of attitude – electricity used to be the bad guy, now it is often seen as an opportunity for climate-efficient energy), and the future roll of electricity as the saviour of the transport-climate problem” (Interview)

New signals from politicians
New signals from politicians mobility dilemma in Sweden

  • Policies supporting CHP developments

  • Extension of certificate systems continue to drive prices up

  • Extension of nuclear capacity in present reactors

  • Statements and positions changing - rhetoric about bad electricity is gone

  • However Mr A Borg still enjoys raising electricity taxation...

Yes, there does seem to be an increasingly positive view on, and outlook for, electricity!How to explain this reorientation?

  • 2nd and 3rd Research Questions:

    • To what extent has EU policy governed the sector’s reorientation and to what extent is it a result of national political changes?

    • Through what mechanisms do EU and national policies affect the sector’s reorientation?

The basic framework
The basic framework and outlook for, electricity!

  • European policy

  • National policy

  • External factors

Outcome in ”field”

(incl. Investments etc)

  • Governance Mechanisms

    • Regulatory standard setting

    • Market-based governance Cognitive-normative governance

EU policy and outlook for, electricity!

-climate and energy package

National policy




R&D etc





External factors

-oil prices,

-economic growth

Reorientation of field




1 the market mechanism
1. The market mechanism and outlook for, electricity!

Eu policies climate energy package
EU policies – Climate & Energy Package and outlook for, electricity!

  • CO2: -20% to 2020

    • ETS sectors -21% from 2005 EU wide

      (35% av Swedish emissions; power&heat, refineries, coal, steel, minerals, paper&pulp

    • Non-trading sector: -17% from 2005 for Sweden (-10% EU wide)

      (65% av Swedish emissions; housing, transport, waste, agriculture, some industries

Domestic policies – Certificates

Eu climate and energy package requires new investments in electricity
EU climate and energy package requires new investments in electricity

  • The RES target requires 25 TWh new wind, CHP or hydro

  • ETS increases electricity prices – strengthen incentives to invest

  • And: grid enhancements, green certificate extensions, concession easening, enhanced hydro

Markal results on 202020 profu
MARKAL results on 202020 (Profu) electricity

  • Virtually all new power will be renewable

  • Sweden will become big exporter

  • ETS increases price, RES decreases it

  • Demand will first continue to go up and then go down (but when?)

  • Nuclear only feasible after 2030 (replacing the old ones)

Heat constrained by 202020 markal reference case 202020 case
Heat constrained by 202020? (MARKAL) electricityReference case 202020 case

Efficiency targets constrains use, heat pumps are pushed in.

Regulatory standard setting
Regulatory standard setting electricity

  • Changes in permitting procedure

  • Energy efficiency standards

  • Instructions to Vattenfall

Cognitive normative governance
Cognitive-normative governance electricity

  • RD&D funding and partnerships

  • Climate commitment strongly integrated in energy sector

  • Nuclear deliberations changing at EU and national levels

  • Renewed interest in broad debate eg BASEL, Krafttag.nu: (Resvik, Svenskt Näringsliv)

  • Sweden’s last ”weapon”... (Leif Johansson, CH Svanberg mfl DN debatt 25/10

  • Other political signal