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CHP-2 ARRAYS. 1.INTRODUCTION. An array is a collection of data elements of similar data types. The data elements grouped in an array can be of any basic data types like integer, float or character or user-defined data types. 2.ARRAYS.

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1 introduction
1.INTRODUCTION

  • An array is a collection of data elements of similar data types.

  • The data elements grouped in an array can be of any basic data types like integer, float or character or user-defined data types.


2 arrays
2.ARRAYS

  • One of the data types, which can be used for storing a list of elements, is an array.

  • Whenever programmers want to store a list of elements under a single variable name but still want to access and manipulate an individual element of the list, arrays are used.

  • Arrays are defined as fixed size sequence of elements of the same data type. These elements are stored at continuous memory locations and can be accessed sequentially or randomly.

  • The program can access a particular element of an array by using one or more indices or subscripts.

  • If only one subscript is used, an array is known as the single-dimensional array.

  • If more than one subscript is used, an array is known as the multi-dimensional array.


3 single dimensional arrays
3.SINGLE-DIMENSIONAL ARRAYS

  • A single-dimensional array is defined as an array in which only one subscript value is used to access its elements. It is the simplest form of an array. Generally, a single-dimensional

    array is denoted as

    array_name [L:U]

    where,

    array_name = the name of the array

    L = the lower bound of the array

    U = the upper bound of the array

  • Before using an array in a program, it needs to be declared. The syntax of declaring a

    Single-dimensional array in C is

    data_type array_name[size];

    where,

    data_type = data type of elements to be stored in array

    array_name = name of the array

    s i z e = the size of the array indicating that the lower bound of the array is 0 and

    the upper bound is s i z e -1. Hence, the value of the subscript ranges from 0 to

    s i ze -1.

  • For example, in the statement intabc [ 5 ] , an integer array of five elements is declared and the array elements are indexed from 0 to 4. Once the compiler reads a single-dimensional array declaration, it allocates a specific amount of memory for the array. Memory is allocated to the array at the compile-time before the program is executed.


Initializing and accessing single dimensional array
Initializing and Accessing Single-Dimensional Array

  • An array can be initialized in two ways: by declaring and initializing it simultaneously or by accepting elements for the already declared array from the user.

  • These elements can be accessed by using the combination of the array name and the subscript value.

    Program 2.1: A program to illustrate initialization of two arrays and display their elements

    #include<stdio.h>

    #include<conio.h>

    void main ()

    {

    int A[5]={1,2,3,4,5};

    int B[5l, i;

    clrscr() ;

    printf("Enter the elements of array B:\n");

    for (i=O; i<5; i++)

    printf("Enter the element:");

    scanf("%d", &B[il);

    printf("Elements of array A: \n");

    for (i=O;i<5;i++)

    printf("%d\t", A[il);

    printf("\nElements of array B: \n");

    for (i=O;i<5;i++)

    printf("%d\t", B[il);

    getch ();

    }


Initializing and accessing single dimensional array1
Initializing and Accessing Single-Dimensional Array

The output of the program is

Enter the elements of array B:

Enter the element: 6

Enter the element: 7

Enter the element: 8

Enter the element: 9

Enter the element: 10

Elements of array A:

1 2 3 4 5

Elements of array B:

6 7 8 9 10

  • Once an array is declared and initialized, various operations, such as traversing, searching,

  • insertion, deletion, sorting and merging can be performed on an array.

  • To perform any operation on an array, the elements of the array need to be accessed. The process of accessing each element of an array is known as traversal.


Chp 2 arrays

Program 2.2: A program to illustrate the traversal of an array

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

void main ()

{

int ARR[5];

Inti,sum=0;

clrscr();

for (i=O;i<3;i++)

{

printf("Enter the elements of the array:\n");

scanf("%d", &ARR[i]);

}

for (i=O;i<3;i++)

{

printf("%d", ARR[i]);

}

for (i=O;i<3;i++)

{

Sum=sum + ARR[i];

}

Printf(“Sum=%d”,sum);

getch();}


Chp 2 arrays

The output of the program is array

Enter the elements of the array:

12 23 34 45 56

The elements of the array are:

12 23 34 45 56

Sum of elements of an array: 170


4 two dimensional arrays
4.Two-Dimensional arrays array

  • A two-dimensional array is defined as an array in which two subscript values are used to access an array element.

  • Two-dimensional arrays are useful when the elements being arranged in the form of rows and columns (matrix form).

  • Generally, a two-dimensional array is represented as

    A[Lr : Ur, Lc : Uc]

    where,

    Lr and Lc = the lower bounds of the row and the column, respectively

    Ur and Uc = the upper bounds of the row and the column, respectively

  • The syntax of declaring a two-dimensional array in C is

  • data type array_name [row_size] [column_size];

  • For example, in the statement int a [3] [3] an integer array of three rows and three columns is declared.


Initializing and accessing two dimensional arrays
Initializing and Accessing Two-dimensional Arrays array

  • Like a single-dimensional array, a two-dimensional array can also be initialized in two ways: by declaring and initializing the array simultaneously and by accepting array elements from the user.

  • Once a two-dimensional array is declared and initialized, the array elements can be accessed anytime.

  • two-dimensional array elements are also accessed by using the combination of the name of the array and subscript values.


Chp 2 arrays

Program 2.3: A program to illustrate traversal of a matrix (two-dimensional array) and finding sum of its elements

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

void main ()

{

int ARR[3] [3], i, j;

clrscr();

printf("Enter the elements of matrix A: \n");

for(i=O;i<3;i++)

{

for(j=O;j<3;j++)

{

Printf(“Enter elements\n”);

scanf ("%d", &ARR[i] [j]);

}

}

for(i=O;i<3;i++)

{

for(j=O;j<3;j++)

{

printf ("%d", &ARR[i] [j]);

Sum=sum+ARR[i][j];

}

}

Printf(“sum=%d”,sum);

getch ();

}


Chp 2 arrays

The output of the program is (two-dimensional array) and finding sum of its elements

Enter the elements of matrix A:

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

Sum of elements of a matrix is: 45


5 three dimensional arrays
5.Three-Dimensional Arrays (two-dimensional array) and finding sum of its elements

  • A three-dimensional array is defined as an array in which three subscript values are used to access an individual array element.

  • The three-dimensional array can be declared as shown here.

    int A[3] [3] [3];


Program 2 4 a program to illustrate the traversal of a three dimensional array
Program 2.4: A program to illustrate the traversal of a (two-dimensional array) and finding sum of its elementsthree-dimensional array

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

void main ()

{

int ARR[3] [3] [3], i, j, k;

clrscr();

for(i=O;i<3;i++)

{

for (j=O;j<3;i++)

{

for (k=O;k<3;k++)

{

printf("Enter the elements of an array A(3x3x3) :\n");

scanf("%d", &ARR[i] [j] [k]);

}

}

}