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Objectives: • Analyze the causes of the “new imperialism.” • Explain why Western imperialism spread so rapidly. • Describe how imperial governments ruled their empires. Chapter 12: The New ImperialismSection 1 - Europeans Build New Empires How did Western nations come to dominate much of the world in the late 1800s?
Terms and People • imperialism – the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region • protectorate– a region in which a local ruler was left in place but expected to follow the advice of European advisors on issues such as trade or missionary activity • sphere of influence–an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges #1
In the late 1800s, Western imperialism expanded aggressively. • Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region. • Although Europeans had established colonies earlier, they had previously had little direct influence over people in China, India, or Africa. The strong, centrally governed nation-states of Europe were greatly enriched by the Industrial Revolution. Encouraged by their new strength, these nations embarked on a path of expansion—the new imperialism.
Forces Behind the “New Imperialism” Aggressive national pride, known as jingoism, fueled competition for colonies.
Imperialism was also driven by genuine humanitarian and religious goals. • Missionaries, doctors, and colonial officials saw it as their duty to spread the blessings of Western civilization. • These benefits included medicine, law, and the Christian religion. Behind the West’s civilizing mission was also a sense of racial superiority. • Social Darwinists applied Darwin’s theory of natural selection to societies. • They saw imperialism as nature’s way of improving the human race. As a result, many non-Westerners lost their cultural heritage.
Economic, political and social factors that contributed to European imperialism in the 19th century. • Economic – Industrial Revolution – created needs: • Natural resources – rubber, oil, steel, palm oil for machines • New markets of consumers – to sell factory goods • Places to invest profits – Excess capital, outlet for growing population • Political • Increased a nations prestige • National glory • Military advantages – strategic locations/safe havens around the globe • Social • Humanitarian – Doctors, missionaries, genuine concern/duty to spread Christianity and Western culture • Social Darwinism – Racial superiority; improve the human species #2
From 1870 to 1914, imperialist nations gained control over much of the world. • Explorers, missionaries, soldiers, merchants, and settlers led the way. • Imperialism found support among all classes of society, including bankers, manufacturers, and workers. French soldiers in Madagascar
Some tried to strengthen their societies by reforming their Hindu, Muslim, or Confucian traditions. Educated Africans and Asians tried to form nationalist movements to expel the imperialists. Asians and Africans resisted but were over- powered by weapons such as the Maxim machine gun.
Within Western nations, a small group of anti-imperialists opposed empire building. • Some saw imperialism as a tool of the rich. • Some felt it was immoral. • Others saw it as undemocratic. Westerners were moving toward greater democracy at home, they argued, but were imposing undemocratic rule on others.
Imperialist nations developed several ways to rule their colonies. #4
Two other forms of rule were through protectorates and spheres of influence.
How did Western nations come to dominate much of the world in the late 1800s? Great Britain and other Western countries built overseas empires in the late 1800s. Advances in science and technology, industry, transportation, and communication gave these industrialized nations many advantages. Armed with new economic and political power, Western nations set out to dominate the world.