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TWI: Problem Solving - A Comprehensive Approach to TWI Implementation. TWI Webinar November 17, 2009 Patrick Graupp TWI Senior Master Trainer. TWI Problem Solving: Two Views. Compared to Toyota Problem Solving How do the two programs compare? Answer: Come from the same roots

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twi problem solving a comprehensive approach to twi implementation

TWI: Problem Solving - A Comprehensive Approach to TWI Implementation

TWI Webinar

November 17, 2009

Patrick Graupp

TWI Senior Master Trainer

twi problem solving two views
TWI Problem Solving: Two Views
  • Compared to Toyota Problem Solving
    • How do the two programs compare?
    • Answer: Come from the same roots
  • The central focus of TWI-PS
    • Finding the “root cause” of the problem
    • Using JM, JI & JR as tools for solving the problem
    • Additional analysis tools and techniques

a little background
A Little Background
  • TWI Service was closed down September, 1945
  • Lowell Mellen, TWI Representative from Cleveland, formed TWI, Inc.
  • TWI, Inc. won contract to deliver TWI programs in Japan and began training in spring of 1951
  • TWI, Inc. created Problem Solving Training in 1956 at request of Japanese government

how important was twi in japan
How Important Was TWI in Japan?

“It is readily apparent to anyone who has been in close contact with Japanese Business and Industry that the Japanese are many, many years behind the West in their thinking about the problems of Organization and Management. In fact, many times it appears that they have done no thinking at all, at least, not logically.”

TWI, Inc. Final Report, 1956, page 31

the need for problem solving
The Need for Problem Solving

“This means that at all Supervisory levels below the very Top there is a reluctance to accept Responsibility for anything… so there is a constant crisis in waiting for someone to make a decision or come up with the answer to anything. The final result is that the average Japanese Supervisor is a very, very frustrated individual who hardly knows which way to turn.”

TWI, Inc. Final Report, 1956, page 32

the shoe is on the other foot
The Shoe is on the Other Foot

“When G.M. collapsed last year and turned to the government for an emergency bailout, its century-old way of conducting business was laid bare, with all its flaws in plain sight. Decisions were made, if at all, at a glacial pace, bogged down by endless committees, reports and reviews that astonished members of President Obama’s auto task force.”

New York Times, November 12, 2009

david meier on toyota ps
David Meier on Toyota PS
  • Lean success is low because we typically go straight to the “answer”
  • What’s missing is long term vision and strategy in solving problems
  • Everyone jumps to the tactical: how to apply lean tools
  • They skip the strategy for execution: our approach to things based on principles

comparison of two methods
Comparison of Two Methods

Toyota Problem Solving Steps

TWI Problem Solving Steps

Isolate the Problem

State the problem

Give proof or evidence

Explore the cause

Draw conclusions

Prepare for Solution

JM, JI, JR Steps 1 & 2

Correct the Problem

JM, JI, JR Steps 3 & 4

Check and Evaluate Results

1. Clarify the Problem

2. Break Down the Problem

3. Target Setting

4. Root Cause Analysis

5. Develop Countermeasures

6. See Countermeasures Through

7. Monitor Both Results and Process

8. Standardize Successful Processes

basic needs of good supervisors
Basic Needs of Good Supervisors










supervisor s responsibilities
Supervisor's Responsibilities
  • What supervisors are responsible for:
    • Quality
    • Production
    • Cost
  • How they achieve those responsibilities:
    • Knowledge of work
    • Knowledge of responsibilities
    • Skill in instructing
    • Skill in leading
    • Skill in improving methods
    • Safety component to all the above needs

what is a problem
What is a Problem?

A supervisor has a problem when the work assigned fails to produce the expected results.

Standard—what should be happening

Gap = Problem

Current Situation—what is actually happening

step 1 isolate the problem
Step 1 — Isolate the Problem

1. State the problem

  • Pick up current problems
    • Problems up to now
    • New problems breaking out
    • Approaching problems
  • Look for and find problems
    • Anticipate and foresee problems
    • Discussion and review of records
  • Prioritize
    • Importance, necessity, emergency level

step 1 isolate the problem1
Step 1 — Isolate the Problem

2. Give proof or evidence of the problem

  • View with an open mind
  • Talk with people, review records
  • Facts, circumstances, figures, etc. that directly show the problem
  • From the Mechanical angle: schedules, rework & scrap, equipment breakdown, accidents, etc.
  • From the People angle: productivity, knowledge & skill, safety, interest, job satisfaction, etc.

step 1 isolate the problem2
Step 1 — Isolate the Problem

3. Explore the cause

  • Causes for each and every piece of evidence
  • Avoid subjective conclusions or preconceptions
  • From the Mechanical angle: method, layout, tools, equipment, environment, standards, etc.
  • From the People angle: job assignment, faulty instruction, human relations, personality, etc.
  • Piece together cause-and-effect relationships
  • Dig down deep

chain of causation
Chain of Causation

chain of causation vs 5 why s
Chain of Causation vs. 5 Why’s






step 1 isolate the problem3
Step 1 — Isolate the Problem

4. Draw conclusions

  • Think over the causes — if these causes are removed, will we still see the evidence?
  • What are the problem points (root causes)?
    • Is the problem Mechanical?
    • Is the problem People?
    • Is it both?
  • Decide on a plan of solution

problem point evaluation
Problem Point Evaluation
  • Mechanical Problems—use JM to solve
  • People Problems:
    • Don’t know/ Can’t do—use JI to solve
    • Don’t care/ Won’t do—use JR to solve

conclusions for step 1
Conclusions for Step 1
  • Step 1 is the most important step
  • Follows Root Cause Analysis pattern
  • Looks for Proof or Evidence of the problem to identify true causes
  • Further refines analysis of problem to include Mechanical and People angles
  • Uses this analysis to help set up plan for solution

for mechanical problems
For Mechanical Problems
  • First, analyze the overall job or situation
    • Cast a “wide net”
    • Use Flow Charts and Flow Diagrams to list and map the routing and location of parts, materials, data, etc.
  • Next, analyze the specific job or situation
    • Breakdown the job method by listing all details
    • Question all details to locate problem sources

types of questions to ask
Types of Questions to Ask
  • WHY is it necessary?
  • WHAT is it’s purpose?
  • WHERE should it be done?
  • WHEN should it be done?
  • WHO is best qualified to do it?
  • HOW is the ‘best way’ to do it?

three parts of a job
Three Parts of a Job

This is the time and effect spent in getting things ready. Also the placement of materials or parts.

  • DO

This is the work that actually accomplishes the desired main objective and adds value.


This includes all details necessary to complete the job after the DO operation.

which do we question first
Which Do We Question First?
  • We question the DO details first because if they are unnecessary then there is no need to question the rest of the operation
  • The greatest opportunity for improvement lies in the MAKE READY and PUT AWAY details
  • The movement of materials without any value added is either MAKE READY or PUT AWAY

for people problems
For People Problems

Don’t Know

Can’t Do

Don’t Care

Won’t Do

Faulty Instruction

Wrong Assignment

Personality Situation

faulty instruction
Faulty Instruction

Insufficient Instruction

Incorrect Instruction

Inefficient Instruction

No Instruction

Little or no preparation of:


Work Place


use job instruction to remedy
Use Job Instruction to Remedy
  • Make a Timetable for training
  • Breakdown the job
    • Important Steps
    • Key Points
  • Prepare the workplace
  • Prepare the learner
    • Put at ease
    • State the job
    • Find what they know
    • Get interested
    • Place in correct position
personality situation
Personality Situation
  • Get the facts
    • Be sure you have the whole story
  • Weigh and decide
    • What possible actions are there?
    • What will the results of the action be?
    • Question the psychological effect
    • Don’t hurt the person’s pride
    • Leave a way open for the individual to “save face”

step 4 check evaluate results
Step 4 — Check & Evaluate Results
  • As soon as possible or practical to learn if the correction has been made
  • Keep alert of the Human Angle—watch for Resistance or Resentment
  • Look for signs of a new problem created by this correction
  • Evaluate results by consulting records
  • Look for way of preventing recurrence

how do they compare
How Do They Compare?

Toyota Problem Solving Steps

TWI Problem Solving Steps

Focus on proof or evidence of a problem that needs to be fixed

Determine root cause and evaluate correct course of action: Mechanical or People

Use TWI methods of JM, JI and JR to prepare a solution and correct the problem

Focus on thorough use of the TWI methods

  • Focus on principles/values that should be targeted when resolving a problem
  • Determine root cause so we know the correct target for countermeasure
  • Use brainstorming and consensus building to develop countermeasures
  • Focus on speedy action and persistent follow through

integrating the twi methods
Integrating the TWI Methods
  • Good review of the TWI methods
  • Gives renewed meaning to TWI methods with the focus on problem solving
  • Allows front line supervisors the ability to solve their everyday problems using the TWI skills they possess
  • Can be used as an introduction to the TWI methods

For additional information please contact [email protected]

[email protected]

The TWI Workbook: Essential Skills for Supervisors

Shingo Research and Professional Publication Prize 2007

Patrick Graupp and Robert J. Wrona