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B2 – Lesson 1 Keeping Healthy. Brainstorm how we get ill. How do we get ill?. Infections - Objectives and Outcomes. At the end of the lesson students will be able to: State 3 types of micro-organism (D) Explain why you get symptoms when you have an infection or disease (C)

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b2 lesson 1 keeping healthy
B2 – Lesson 1 Keeping Healthy
  • Brainstorm how we get ill

How do we get ill?

infections objectives and outcomes
Infections - Objectives and Outcomes

At the end of the lesson students will be able to:

  • State 3 types of micro-organism (D)
  • Explain why you get symptoms when you have an infection or disease (C)
  • Discuss the health risks associated with infections (B)
the importance of hygiene
The Importance of Hygiene

Why should you wash your hands after using the toilet?

what are pathogens
What are Pathogens?

Micro organisms that cause disease.

what are microbes
What are Microbes?
  • Living things are called __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ .
  • Tiny organisms can be made of only __ __ __ cell.
  • We call them __ __ __ __ __ organisms.
what are microbes1

Telescope

Microscope

What are Microbes?
  • Micro-organisms are some times called microbes for short.
  • We can not see them with our eyes…

Do we use a microscope or a telescope to see them?

different types of microbes
Different Types of Microbes

There are three types of microbes:

microbes

bacteria

viruses

fungi

what are microorganisms
What are microorganisms?
  • Fungi Small...
  • Bacteria ...smaller...
  • Viruses ...smallest!
why do bacteria and viruses make you ill
Why do bacteria and viruses make you ill?

Symptoms of disease are caused by damage done to cells or by toxins they make.

In suitable conditions micro-organisms can reproduce rapidly into large numbers!

which is not a microbe
Which is not a microbe

A, Fungus

B, Bacteria

C, Virus

D, Organ

what do you call a disease causing microbe
What do you call a disease causing microbe?

A, Antigen

B, Pathogen

C, Capsicum

D, Pathostem

what does not cause symptoms of disease
What does not cause symptoms of disease

A, Damage to Cells

B, Toxins

C, Rapid reproduction of the pathogen

D, High temperature

slide16

Viruses

Bacteria

Fungi

5 minute breather
5 minute breather
  • Video of TV ad campaign for Sti’s

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HzmWaYHHRPA

true or false
True or False?
  • A person can have an STI and not know it
  • Once you have had an STI and have been cured, you can’t get it again
  • A pregnant woman who has an STI can pass it on to her baby
  • Most STIs go away without treatment, if people wait long enough
  • STIs that aren’t cured early can cause sterility
  • Birth control pills offer protection from STIs
  • Condoms can help prevent the spread of STIs
  • If you know your partner, you can’t get an STI
  • A sexually active woman should get an annual pap test from her doctor
  • Chlamydia is a type of STI
  • Only young people can get STI
what is under your fingernail
What is under your fingernail??
  • There are lots of things in the world around us that you cannot see with your own eyes.
  • There are living things made of many cells
  • And there are living things made

of only one cell

Microbes are micro organisms that are too small to be seen. A pathogen is a microbe that can cause diseases if it enters the body:

micro bugs vs bacteria
Micro-bugs vs Bacteria

Microbug on a Human hair Bacteria

Human hair

is that as small as microbes get
Is that as small as microbes get?

Nope: Viruses are even smaller

lesson 1 infectious diseases

Copy and complete:

Infections are caused by some ____________ that invade the body. Microorganisms are ______, ________ and _______.

When disease microorganisms get inside your body, they _______ very quickly. This causes _______ - the ill feelings. Symptoms can be caused by

1. ______________________

2.______________________

Lesson 1: Infectious diseases

slide24

Virus Reproduction - What’s the Order?

Infect nearby cells and repeat the process.

Use the cell contents to replicate (form thousands of identical copies)

Viruses are taken into cells in the body

Damage the cell as they burst out and

slide25

Virus Reproduction - What’s the Order?

Viruses are taken into cells in the body

Use the cell contents to replicate (form thousands of identical copies)

Damage the cell as they burst out and

Infect nearby cells and repeat the process.

b2 lesson 2 microbe attack
B2 lesson 2Microbe attack

LO: to know what parts of your body stop micro-organisms getting in [C] and how the body fights off micro-organisms when they are inside [B]

fighting disease
Fighting disease

If microbes do enter our body they need to be neutralised or killed. This is done by WHITE BLOOD CELLS:

  • White blood cells do 3 things:
  • They eat the microbe (phagocytosis)
  • They produce antibodies to neutralise the microbe
  • The produce antitoxins to neutralise the poisons produced by microbes
producing antibodies
Producing antibodies

You’re going down

Step 1: The white blood cell “sees” the antigen (microbe)

Step 2: The cell produces antibodies to “fit” the antigen

Step 3: The antibodies fit onto the antigens and cause them to “clump”

Step 4: The antigens are “eaten” by the white blood cells

quick questions
Quick Questions

Red blood cells carrying…….........?

White blood cells ready to fight…….......?

story board rules
Story Board Rules

Task : in pairs draw a story board that illustrates the two methods white blood cells use to fight infection

  • 5 mins brainstorm and discuss
  • 20 mins
  • Must contain GOOD science
  • Must use keywords – antigen, antibodies, immune, phagocytosis,
  • Pages 92-93
bingo
BINGO
  • Antigen
  • Infection
  • Antibody
  • White blood cell
  • Immunity
  • Fungi
  • Phagocytosis
  • Engulf
  • Red blood cell
  • Memory cell
  • Lymph nodes
  • Pathogen
  • Virus
  • Bacteria
  • Microorganism
in gcse science exams they like to test your maths skills
In GCSE science exams they like to test your MATHS skills...

Calculate the population growth of microorganisms given appropriate data

EXAMPLE:-

Revisium biologus is a bacterium that reproduces every 20 minutes. If 10 R.biologus bacteria are left for 2 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period?

There are some simple steps to work this out...

immune system
Immune System

bacteria

white blood cell

virus

antibiotics

fungus

LO: to understand the different roles white blood cells can play in

fighting off disease [C] calculate population growth of microorganisms [B] explain why white blood cells create

antibodies [A] (STS: 2)

  • Mix and match
  • I cause thrush
  • I provide antibodies
  • I cause AIDS
  • I am smaller than fungi but bigger than a virus
  • I only kill bacteria and fungi
mini test
mini test
  • 6 = A*
  • 5 = A
  • 4 = B
  • 3 = C
  • 2 = D
what is a pathogen
What is a pathogen?

C

A disease causing microbe

A

A change in the environment

D

A type of medicine

B

Fungi, Bacteria and Viruses

which of these is not a first line of defence against disease
Which of these is NOT a first line of defence against disease?

Skin

Mucus

A

B

C

D

White blood cells

Stomach acid

which picture shows a virus
Which picture shows a virus?

A

B

C

D

A low number of species which are adapted to survive in low oxygen concentrations

what do all microbes need for optimum growth
What do ALL microbes need for optimum growth?

Moisture

Alkali

Nutrients

Warmth

Nutrients

Carbon dioxide

A

B

Warmth

Moisture

Nutrients

Oxygen

Moisture

Warmth

C

D

what does phagocytosis mean
What does ‘phagocytosis’ mean?

B

The immune system

A

Fossilisation

C

A WBC engulfing (eating) a microbe

D

To get better quickly after infection

fighting disease1
Fighting disease

If microbes do enter our body they need to be neutralised or killed. This is done by WHITE BLOOD CELLS:

  • White blood cells do 3 things:
  • They eat the microbe (phagocytosis)
  • They produce antibodies to neutralise the microbe
  • The produce antitoxins to neutralise the poisons produced by microbes
producing antibodies1
Producing antibodies

You’re going down

Step 1: The white blood cell “sees” the antigen (microbe)

Step 2: The cell produces antibodies to “fit” the antigen

Step 3: The antibodies fit onto the antigens and cause them to “clump”

Step 4: The antigens are “eaten” by the white blood cells

specific antibodies
Specific antibodies

Antibodies are specific – they will only neutralise the microbe they have been made for.

Once we have made an antibody to recognise a particular microbe, ‘memory cells’ can make that antibody again very quickly, therefore protecting against that microbe in the future - IMMUNITY

fighting off infection

20 minutes

fighting off infection

Outcomes: produce a story board that explains how our white blood cells create antibodies to fight off infection.

Success Criteria:

C – create a labelled diagram for each stage

B – explain in words what is happening

A – use 8 scientific words in your explanation

  • Stages (not in correct order)
  • Antigens eaten
  • Antigens seen
  • Produces antibodies
  • Clump together
  • EXTENSION
  • Draw a diagram to represent WBC making antitoxins to neutralise the poisons produced by microbes
key words
Key Words

White blood cell Antitoxins

Microbe Pathogen

Antibodies Phagocytosis

Antigen Immune

Engulf Memory Cells

Specific Neutralised

worksheet bacteria and viruses can grow exponentially
Worksheet - Bacteria and viruses can grow EXPONENTIALLY ...

reproduction period 1

reproduction period 2

3

4

in gcse science exams they like to test your maths skills1
In GCSE science exams they like to test your MATHS skills...

Calculate the population growth of microorganisms given appropriate data

EXAMPLE:-

Revisium biologus is a bacterium that reproduces every 20 minutes. If 10 R.biologus bacteria are left for 2 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period?

There are some simple steps to work this out...

3 marks pick from the following
3 marks – pick from the following
  • number of bacteria after 2 hours is 12 800 (or 1.28 x 104), which is a sufficient number to cause food poisoning
  • idea that if conditions were not optimum the actual number may be lower than this
  • idea that not enough data/evidence/information, or would need to measure more things, to conclude that person will definitely get food poisoning
  • idea of immune response against bacteria or toxins / acid in stomach destroying bacteria or toxins
graphs yuck but a popular question
Graphs – yuck!(but a popular question)

Discuss with your partner what I show.

2nd exposure to the same MO

Concentration of antibodies in blood

1st exposure to MO

10 days

25 days

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Time (days)

end of lesson quiz
End of lesson quiz

Turn to the back of your book and put 1 to 5 in the margin.

The questions will pop up, answer them as quickly as possible.

quiz questions
Quiz questions
  • Name the 3 main types of microbes
  • Which organ uses acid to kill microbes?
  • What do white blood cells make to fight microbes?
  • What P is a disease causing microbe?
  • What does engulf mean?

5 correct A

4 correct B

2-3 correct C

1 correct D

slide58
Drug TestingLO To know the main stages of drug testing and the ethical and validity issues of being in a drugs trial

STARTER

If you were ill and you were asked to take part in a trial for a new drug what questions would you ask before deciding if you would be involved.

write three questions

drug testing leaflet
Drug Testing Leaflet

Create a leaflet that is all about testing new drugs.

On it describe the 3 main stages of testing a new drug

On your leaflet explain the following key terms in clinical trials and why

they are important:

a. double blind trial

b. blind trial

c. a placebo.

d. random groups

e. the control group

what is a pathogen1
What is a pathogen?

C

A disease causing microbe

A

A change in the environment

D

A type of medicine

B

Fungi, Bacteria and Viruses that do not cause disease

what is a double blind trial
What is a double blind trial?

Even the scientist don’t know who got the real drug

The scientists know who gets the real drug

A

B

Both the scientists and the patients know the treatment being used

C

D

The patients are testing eye drops

what is a blind trial
What is a blind trial?

A

B

C

D

The trial has

psychological

effects

The patients don’t

know if they have

been given the real

drug

Even the scientist

don’t know

who got the

real drug

A low number of species which are adapted to survive in low oxygen concentrations

The patients are testing eye drops

what is a placebo
What is a placebo?

An 90’s indie band

A real test drug used in medical trials

A

B

A fake treatment to eliminate psychological effects

A type of white blood cell

C

D

what is an open label trial
What is an open-label trial?

A fake treatment to eliminate psychological effects

A

B

Both the scientists and the patients know the treatment being used

C

An unethical trial

D

Even the scientist don’t know who got the real drug

heart disease
Heart Disease

LO - To know the risk factors associated with heart disease.

Starter

You are part of a double blind trial for a new drug and you are given the placebo. Explain what this means in words a year 7 would understand.

slide68
Task: create an informative poster for use in a doctors surgery on how to reduce your risk of heart disease.
  • Include information on:
    • Diet
    • Smoking
    • Drugs
    • Stress
    • Alcohol
    • Epidemiological Studies - extension
heart disease t or f

Heart attacks are common in the UK

  • Only men have heart attacks.
  • Young people don’t have heart attacks.
  • Smoking increases your risk of heart attack.
  • Heart attacks happen when arteries to the heart are blocked.
  • Heart attacks are always fatal.
  • When you have a heart attack, some of your muscle dies.
  • Heart muscle dies when it doesn’t get oxygen.
  • Any fat in your diet is harmful.
  • Being overweight puts a strain on your heart.

HEART DISEASE (T or F)

heart disease t or f1

Heart attacks are common in the UK

  • Only men have heart attacks.
  • Young people don’t have heart attacks.
  • Smoking increases your risk of heart attack.
  • Heart attacks happen when arteries to the heart are blocked.
  • Heart attacks are always fatal.
  • When you have a heart attack, some of your muscle dies.
  • Heart muscle dies when it doesn’t get oxygen.
  • Any fat in your diet is harmful.
  • Being overweight puts a strain on your heart.

HEART DISEASE (T or F)

worksheet bacteria and viruses can grow exponentially1
Worksheet - Bacteria and Viruses can grow EXPONENTIALLY ...

reproduction period 1

reproduction period 2

3

4

in gcse science exams they like to test your maths skills2
In GCSE science exams they like to test your MATHS skills...

Calculate the population growth of microorganisms given appropriate data

EXAMPLE:-

Revisium biologus is a bacterium that reproduces every 20 minutes. If 10 R.biologus bacteria are left for 2 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period?

There are some simple steps to work this out...

slide75

EXAMPLE:-

Revisium biologus is a bacterium that reproduces every 20 minutes. If 10 R.biologus bacteria are left for 2 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period?

  • Step 1: work out how many minutes there are!

2 hours = 120 minutes

  • Step 2: work out how many reproduction periods that will be!

120 minutes÷20 minutes = 6 reproduction periods

  • Step 3: work out the number of bacteria after the first reproduction period

10 R.biologus (at start) x 2 = 20 R.biologus

  • Step 4: work out the number of bacteria you’d have after the second reproduction period

20 R.biologus x 2 = 40

Step 5: keep going until you have done all 6 reproduction periods!

you could use a table
You could use a table...

EXAMPLE:-

Revisium biologus is a bacterium that reproduces every 20 minutes. If 10 R.biologus bacteria are left for 2 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period?

slide77

Exam practice 1

Huguntis flavis is a bacterium that reproduces every 30 minutes. If 5 H.flavis bacteria are left for 3 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period?

Exam practice 2

Vicitus diosilus is a bacterium that reproduces every 10 minutes. If 12 V.diosilus bacteria are left for 40 minutes, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period?

EXTENSION - Exam practice 3

Krispeecremus donutus is a bacterium that reproduces every 45 minutes. If 15 K.donutus bacteria are left for 4.5 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period?

3 marks pick from the following1
3 marks – pick from the following
  • number of bacteria after 2 hours is 12 800 (or 1.28 x 104), which is a sufficient number to cause food poisoning
  • idea that if conditions were not optimum the actual number may be lower than this
  • idea that not enough data/evidence/information, or would need to measure more things, to conclude that person will definitely get food poisoning
  • idea of immune response against bacteria or toxins / acid in stomach destroying bacteria or toxins
antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic Resistance

Superbug Video

15 mins to make a postcard for a doctors surgery on antibiotic resistance
15 mins to make a postcard for a doctors surgery on antibiotic resistance

Fungi Needs

BacteriaFull Course

How it works

circulation and the heart
Circulation and the Heart

LO - To know the role of the heart and how it works

Starter

You are part of an open label trial for a new drug. No one is given a placebo. Explain what this means in words a year 7 would understand. Give an ethical reason why open label trials are used in developing new drugs.

slide85

Double circulatory system

Lungs

Body cells

Our circulatory system is in two parts. It is in fact called a double circulatory system.

This section of the system including the left side of the heart, deals with the oxygenated blood.

This section of the system including the right side of the heart, deals with the deoxygenated blood.

slide89

Blood from the lungs

Blood squeezed through valves into…

slide90

Blood from the lungs

…the ventricle

slide92

…goes to the body

Blood from the lungs…

slide94

Aorta

pulmonary vein

slide97

Vena cava

Atrium

slide100

Aorta

Vena cava

slide101

Copy picture

Aorta

Vena Cava

slide104

Valves

These valves are rather like doors that only open in one direction.

blood

valve

the circulatory system
The Circulatory System

There are 3 types of blood vessels

Arteries

Veins

Capillaries

blood vessels
Blood vessels
  • This is a system of tubes that transport blood around the body.
  • Vein – carries blood towards the heart
  • Artery – carries blood away from the heart
  • Capillaries – really small blood vessels
arteries and veins

thick layer of muscle and elastic fibres

Artery

thick outer layer

Vein

thin outer wall

thin layer of muscle and elastic fibres

Arteries and Veins
arteries
Arteries
  • These carry blood AWAY from the heart (Think Arteries Away = AA)
  • They are buried deep in the body
  • They carry oxygen rich blood (except for the pulmonary artery!)
veins
Veins
  • These carry blood IN to the heart
  • (Think veINs=IN)
  • They carry oxygen poor blood (except for the pulmonary vein!)
capillaries
Capillaries
  • These carry blood to the cells
  • They are narrow vessels running throughout the body
  • They carry oxygen rich blood from the arteries, past the cells. The oxygen poor blood is then carried to the veins.
can you label the blood vessels
Can you label the blood vessels?

1. Artery, capillary, vein,

2. small lumen, large lumen, very small lumen

3. Single cell wall, thick elastic wall, thin wall

plenary the circulatory system
Plenary - The Circulatory System

Arteries

Veins

Capillaries

  • Which of these blood vessels:
  • Takes blood away from the heart?
  • Carries oxygenated blood?
  • Contains blood under high pressure?
  • Is only 1 cell thick?
  • Contains valves?
slide119

What is your independent variable?

What is your dependent variable?

What variables will you keep the same?

Why?

slide120

What will you do to make your results reliable (repeats)?

What will you do to make your results accurate (measurements)?

How many results will you need to collect to make the investigation valid?

slide124

What is the effect of alcohol on Daphnia?

Planning

My independent variable that I will change is ______ .

My dependent variable that I will measure is _______.

To make it a fair test I will keep ______ , __________, _____________ , and __________ the same.

The equipment that I will need is _________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

Method

Results

I predict that ________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

Conclusion

As the amount of alcohol in the water increased ________________________________________________

When there was the most alcohol in the water _________________________________________________

When there was the least alcohol in the water _________________________________________________

My conclusion about the effect of alcohol on Daphnia is __________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

I think in humans alcohol __________________________________________________________________

who s urine match up
Who’s urine? MATCH UP!

Normal diet

Has been exercising but

not drunk anything

Drunk plenty

of water

learning objective

Title - Homeostasis

Learning Objective

To be able to explain how our bodies control water content.

learning outcome
Learning Outcome
  • Homeostasis involves making sure that our bodies have the correct levels of 4 key things.
  • Can you name two of them?
what is homeostasis
What is Homeostasis?

Homeostasis involves maintaining a

constant environment in the body

  • Homeostasis makes sure our body has the correct levels of;

Temperature

Water

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

slide130

B2 : How does the body control water balance?

In

Out

Food and drink

Breath

Our bodies need a balanced water level to keep the internal concentration of our cells at the correct level for them to work properly.

Sweat

Water made in respiration

Faeces

Urine

slide131

The kidneys

  • Kidneys do two main jobs:
  • Remove waste urea from the blood.
  • Keep a balance of other chemicals in the blood – including water.
slide132

How kidneys work

Filtering all small molecules from the blood.

Reabsorbing all of the glucose.

Reabsorbing as much salt as the body needs.

Reabsorbing as much water as the body needs.

Excreting the remaining urea, excess water and salt as urine, which is stored in the bladder.

slide133

Water balance

The concentration of blood plasma is monitored as it passes through the brain.

If the blood is too dilute then kidneys excrete more water in the urine.

If the blood is too concentrated then kidneys excrete less water in the urine.

The amount of water in the blood depends on: external temperature, exercise, intake of fluids and salts.

slide134

ADH and water balance.

The concentration of urine is controlled by a hormone called ADH (anti-diuretic hormone).

It is released into the bloodstream by the pituitary gland.

slide135

ADH secreted by pituitary gland

Blood too concentrated – detected in brain

ADH causes kidneys to reabsorb more water to blood

Water Balance

Normal blood concentration

Normal blood concentration

Blood too dilute – detected in brain

kidneys reabsorb less water to blood

ADH not secreted by pituitary gland

true false quiz
True/False Quiz!
  • Your urine is always the same.
  • The pituitary gland monitors blood plasma.
  • Homeostasis maintains a constant internal environment.
  • The liver helps balance water and waste in the body.
  • Alcohol suppresses ADH production.
  • Ecstasy increases ADH production.

FALSE

TRUE

TRUE

FALSE

TRUE

Dehydration

TRUE

Drowning

which is the odd one out
Which is the odd one out?

bacteria

virus

fungus

b2 past exam questions
B2 past EXAM questions!
  • I will be round to mark them as you go ready to put into your progress folder.

ALL must do 2 exam questions

SOME will do more so can pick their highest grade for progress folder

FEW will do all exam questions for a PRIZE!

3 marks pick from the following2
3 marks – pick from the following
  • number of bacteria after 2 hours is 12 800 (or 1.28 x 104), which is a sufficient number to cause food poisoning
  • idea that if conditions were not optimum the actual number may be lower than this
  • idea that not enough data/evidence/information, or would need to measure more things, to conclude that person will definitely get food poisoning
  • idea of immune response against bacteria or toxins / acid in stomach destroying bacteria or toxins
testing urine
Testing Urine
  • Draw the following table in your books neatly.
  • Test the 3 urine samples for protein and for sugar using the equipment available.
  • EXTENSION: explain in as much detail as possible what homeostasis is and how water content is controlled in the body.
drug trials
Drug Trials
  • Outcomes: create a Powerpoint on the use of drug trials in medical science.

Include information on the following:

  • Laboratory testing on human cells [C]
  • Laboratory testing on animals [C-B]
  • Human clinical trials [A]
    • ‘blind trails’ (you’ll need to know what a placebo is)
    • ‘double blind trials’
    • ‘open label trials’
starter describe what this image below shows
Starter – Describe what this image below shows

An antibody can only bind to a specific type of antigen

3 marks pick from the following3
3 marks – pick from the following
  • number of bacteria after 2 hours is 12 800 (or 1.28 x 104), which is a sufficient number to cause food poisoning
  • idea that if conditions were not optimum the actual number may be lower than this
  • idea that not enough data/evidence/information, or would need to measure more things, to conclude that person will definitely get food poisoning
  • idea of immune response against bacteria or toxins / acid in stomach destroying bacteria or toxins
describe the peer review process and explain why it is important
Describe the peer review process and explain why it is important
  • Scientists in the same field check the validity of research
  • Work is only published if it is found to be trustworthy /reliable
  • Important because only trustworthy/reliable science is published
  • Information will not mislead the public
slide151

How will alcohol in the beer affect the amount of ADH release into Damon’s bloodstream and how will this affect the volume of Damon’s urine?

  • Alcohol suppresses ADH production
  • Damon will have a greater volume of urine
why is there no vaccine for the hiv virus
Why is there no vaccine for the HIV virus?
  • HIV does not have a protein coat so cannot be recognised by antibodies
  • HIV seeks out and actively attacks WBCs therefore weakening the immune response
  • HIV makes your own body start to destroy its own WBCs
arteries and veins1

thick layer of muscle and elastic fibres

Artery

thick outer layer

Vein

thin outer wall

thin layer of muscle and elastic fibres

Arteries and Veins
arteries1
Arteries
  • These carry blood AWAY from the heart (Think Arteries Away = AA)
  • They are buried deep in the body
  • They carry oxygen rich blood (except for the pulmonary artery!)
veins1
Veins
  • These carry blood IN to the heart
  • (Think veINs=IN)
  • They carry oxygen poor blood (except for the pulmonary vein!)
capillaries1
Capillaries
  • These carry blood to the cells
  • They are narrow vessels running throughout the body
  • They carry oxygen rich blood from the arteries, past the cells. The oxygen poor blood is then carried to the veins.
can you label the blood vessels1
Can you label the blood vessels?

1. Artery, capillary, vein,

2. small lumen, large lumen, very small lumen

3. Single cell wall, thick elastic wall, thin wall

antibiotic resistance1
Antibiotic Resistance

Superbug Video

15 mins to make a postcard for a doctors surgery on antibiotic resistance1
15 mins to make a postcard for a doctors surgery on antibiotic resistance

Fungi Needs

BacteriaFull Course

How it works

Wash hands

plenary the circulatory system1
Plenary - The Circulatory System

Arteries

Veins

Capillaries

  • Which of these blood vessels:
  • Takes blood away from the heart?
  • Carries oxygenated blood?
  • Contains blood under high pressure?
  • Is only 1 cell thick?
  • Contains valves?
slide162
Name an organism that has a cell wall
  • What is the advantage of having a cell wall?
  • If penicillin prevents bacteria forming peptide cross-linkages in cell walls, how does penicillin work?
starter b2 lesson 3 immunity
Starter- B2 lesson 3Immunity

Discuss with the person next to you.

(at your discretion)

  • What is the worst illness you’ve ever had?
  • Have you ever been into hospital (apart from birth)
  • Have you taken medicine for an illness (what was it)
  • How did it work?
ways to fight diseases
Ways to fight diseases
  • Antibiotics
  • Read together pg 40 and 41 – summarise in your own words
  • Question 1 - 5
vaccine
Vaccine
  • Draw diagrams from page 44 showing how a vaccine works
slide166

SMALL POX – WHY VACCINATED AND ERADICATED

Smallpox is a serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease (30% of infected people died). There is no specific treatment for smallpox disease, and the only prevention is vaccination. The name smallpox is derived from the Latin word for “spotted” and refers to the raised bumps that appear on the face and body of an infected person.

flu aids
Flu AIDS

Why can you Why can you not

catch this again? fight this off?

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WS AB2_9 What if everyone did that

Susan and June are both young mothers with babies. They are in the park watching their older children play.

June: We’re taking little April for her MMR jab tomorrow. I hope she’ll be alright.

Susan: You’re mad! Why are you even risking it?

June: We’d rather risk her having a bad reaction to the jab than getting one of those diseases.

Susan: But those old diseases have almost disappeared now. There’s hardly any chance of her getting one of them.

June: But the diseases have only disappeared because people get their children vaccinated.

Susan: Yes, but they have disappeared. So now there’s no need to worry.

June: But if people don’t get their babies vaccinated the disease will come back.

Susan: Yes, but that’s people, not you. There’ll always be plenty of goody-goodies who do what the doctors say. So why should you risk April’s health when you’ve no need to?

June: Well, we’re not risking it very much. The doctor told us that the chances of her being badly affected, or affected at all, are very low indeed.

Susan: Yes, but why take any risk at all? As long as other people are having their babies done, why take the chance? I’m certainly not going to risk my Danny.

Susan thinks that it’s stupid to vaccinate your baby. There is a small risk of the baby being badly affected by the vaccine.

She thinks that this is OK because enough other people are getting their babies vaccinated. So it’s unlikely that her baby will get the disease.

whooping cough
Whooping cough
  • Rd pages 47 and 48
whiteboard quiz
Whiteboard quiz

Whatcha know now eh??

10 mins to finish a postcard for a doctors surgery for mums awaiting an mmr jab
10 mins to finish a postcard for a doctors surgery for mums awaiting an MMR jab

Pros cons

consequencesadvice

How it works

which is riskier
Which is riskier?

Nuclear Power or Peanut Butter?

how would you know
How would you know?
  • When people talk about risk what do they say?
rank these in order of highest to lowest risk
Rank these in order of highest to lowest risk
  • travelling in a plane
  • cycling
  • driving a car
  • living near a nuclear power plant
  • living in Cornwall
  • living in a city
  • smoking
rank these in order of highest to lowest risk1
Rank these in order of highest to lowest risk
  • travelling in a plane
  • cycling
  • driving a car
  • living near a nuclear power plant
  • fall-out from a nuclear accident such as Chernobyl
  • living in Cornwall
  • living in a city
  • smoking

We’ll find out later if you were right!

an example about perception of risk
An example about perception of risk…

People are still very frightened about BSE as they did notvolunteer to take a risk of catching disease when they bought the food. However, some people willvolunteer to aid refugees in war.

Who perceives that the risk is larger?

Whether or not you volunteer for the risk affects your perception

3 other things that affect your perception
3 other things that affect your perception…
  • Can you think of a risk that does not affect people or an areaequally?
  • Can you think of a risk that results from a man-made rather than a natural source?
  • Can you think of a risk where there is a threat of death in some form?
some hints
Some hints…
  • Can you think of a risk that does not affect people or an areaequally?
  • Can you think of a risk that results from a man-made rather than a natural source?
  • Can you think of a risk where there is a threat of death in some form?

Bird flu

Mobile phone masts

Climate change

slide185
All these risks give an equal probability of increasing your chance of death by one part in a million:
is this better1
Is this better?

Were you right?

so what is risk
So what is risk?

risk = probability x consequence

risk probability x consequence
risk = probability x consequence

Apply this equation to bungee jumping

risk probability x consequence1
risk = probability x consequence

Apply this equation to driving a car

risk probability x consequence2
risk = probability x consequence

Apply this equation to having a swimming pool in your back garden and having small children

risk probability x consequence3
risk = probability x consequence

Apply this equation to getting out of bed in the morning

another way of expressing risk
Another way of expressing risk…
  • In the 1980s the following research was published:
    • Women who take the contraceptive pill have a 50%increased risk of cervical cancer.
another way of expressing risk1
Another way of expressing risk…
  • In the 1980s the following research was published:
    • Out of 100,000 women not on the pill 4 are likely to get cervical cancer.
    • Out of 100,000 women on the pill 6 are likely to get cervical cancer.
    • This is a increase of 50%.

…. What do you think now?

coronary arteries
Coronary Arteries
  • How the heart itself lives??
  • Bring oxygen and glucose to the heart muscles
  • Fatty lumps can block it and bring on a heart attack
slide201

As the atrium fills with blood, the valves are closed.

When the atrium contracts and squeeze the blood, the valves are pushed open.

These valves are connected to the side wall of the heart by tough tendons.

These tendons allow the valves to close but not invert.

slide202

valve

tendon

wall of ventricle

These tendons can be compared to an arm holding onto the handle of a door.

slide203

The arm bends as the door is opened.

When the door is closed the arm is fully extended.

It would be impossible for the door to open in the other direction without the person moving with it.

The tendon (represented by the arm) is held in a fixed position and therefore the valve (door) can only open in one direction.

slide204

However, the valves remain firmly shut.

The blood will naturally push against the valve.

In this way, the blood can be moved from chamber to chamber quite efficiently.

The valves prevent the blood from moving in the wrong direction.

slide205

we also find valves here

...and here!

These extra valves stop the blood from re-entering the heart when it is pumped from the ventricles.

slide206

artery

ventricle

valve

When the blood knocks against the first heart valves, it makes a ‘lub’ like sound.

When the blood knocks against the second set of heart valves, it makes a ‘dub’ like sound.

The blood ‘slaps’ against the valve and then passes along the artery.

These two sounds – lub and dub – are actually what we hear as our heartbeat. So our heartbeat is in fact the sound of the valves opening and closing.

heart disease1
Heart disease
  • AB2.9 Video Cholesterol and the heart
heart disease t or f2

Heart attacks are common in the UK

  • Only men have heart attacks.
  • Young people don’t have heart attacks.
  • Smoking increases your risk of heart attack.
  • Heart attacks happen when arteries to the heart are blocked.
  • Heart attacks are always fatal.
  • When you have a heart attack, some of your muscle dies.
  • Heart muscle dies when it doesn’t get oxygen.
  • Any fat in your diet is harmful.
  • Being overweight puts a strain on your heart.

HEART DISEASE (T or F)

slide212
!!! BREAD IS DANGEROUS !!!

Research on bread indicates that:

1. More than 98 percent of convicted felons are bread users.

2. Fully HALF of all children who grow up in bread-consuming households score below average on standardized tests.

3. In the 18th century, when virtually all bread was baked in the home, the average life expectancy was less than 50 years; infant mortality rates were unacceptably high; many women died in childbirth; and diseases such as typhoid, yellow fever, and influenza ravaged whole nations.

4. More than 90 percent of violent crimes are committed within 24 hours of eating bread.

5. Bread is made from a substance called "dough." It has been proven that as little as one pound of dough can be used to suffocate a mouse. The average American eats more bread than that in one month!

6. Primitive tribal societies that have no bread exhibit a low incidence of cancer, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, and osteoporosis.

7. Bread has been proven to be addictive. Subjects deprived of bread and given only water to eat begged for bread after as little as two days.

epidemiological studies

Epidemiological studies

Describe the correlation between smoking and lung cancer.

Is one case of a smoker dying of lung cancer enough to prove a link?

How big was the study by Doll and Hill which gave more evidence that smoking caused lung cancer?

What was the final piece of the puzzle that confirmed smoking causes lung cancer?

page 58
Page 58
  • Read page and do Q 1-6
slide217

Starter - What are the 7 life processes ? (things that all living things do)

Use MRS GREN to help you…

M =

R =

S =

G =

R =

E =

N =

slide222

The oldest preserved medical document is from Egypt.

  • It was written in 1570 and is 20 metres long.
  • Over 700 remedies are included.
  • Many diseases are described, including diabetes and arthritis.
slide223

There have always been medical experts.

  • In 1804 bloodletting was used to treat many illnesses.
slide224

This 18th century kit was used for drilling a hole into the patient’s skull.

  • This treatment was used for centuries before this.
slide225

But anaesthetics weren’t introduced until 1846.

  • This picture shows the first public operation with anaesthetic.
slide229

Now doctors can get a lot of information without having to go into the patient’s body.

  • Treatments have also changed as scientists have learnt more about how the body works.
slide230

There are many medical challenges still to overcome.

  • Perhaps one of the most difficult is how to give expensive treatment to everyone who needs it.
some very large microbes
Some very large microbes
  • You may have seen pictures of bugs living in your house before. These bugs although scary looking are much, much larger than what we will talk about
slide233

Bee mites. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of bee mites on the body of a bee. These parasites feed by cutting into the surface membranes of the bee. In large numbers they can devastate colonies of bees.

slide234

Dust mites. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of two dust mites on fabric fibres. Millions of dust mites inhabit the home, feeding on shed skin cells. They mainly live in furniture, and are invisible to the naked eye due to their size. The excrement and dead bodies of these mites may cause allergic reactions in susceptible people.

Magnification: x150

slide235

Follicle mites. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of follicle or eyelash mites These harmless parasites infest hair follicles (holes in the skin which contain the roots of hairs) around the eyelids, nose and in the ear canals of humans. One follicle may contain up to 25 growing mites.

They feed on oily secretions from the glands, as well as dead skin cells.

Magnification: x180 at 6x7cm size.

slide236

Lice. Two lice, Phthirus pubis, also known as crab lice, hanging from human hair. An adult louse and infant louse are seen. An infestation of P. pubis causes pediculosis, the symptoms of which are severe itching and a rash. The lice suck blood, feeding five times a day. Each of the louse's six legs terminates in a massive claw, which folds inward to meet a thumb-like projection on the opposite side. The louse climbs & swings through its habitat, locking into position when disturbed. Magnification: x20 at 6x7cm size.

slide237

Head louse and egg. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a human head louse (Pediculushumanus capitis) and an egg attached to a strand of human hair. The louse ranges in size from 2 to 3 millimetres in length. Each of its six legs end in a claw. Adult lice live for approximately 30 days, and during this time a female may lay 100 eggs (nits), which are glued to the bottom of hair shafts. An infestation of lice causes itching due to an allergic reaction to louse saliva.

slide238

Bed bug. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of 2 parasitic bed bugs, on fabric. The head has a pair of eyes (red), two antennae, and piercing mouthparts. A regular diet of blood is necessary for bed bugs to reach maturity. A parasite of humans, this species feeds at night and after a blood meal the body becomes quite swollen. The bite of a bed bug produces swellings on the skin. It is painful and may be lasting in some cases. During the day the bed bug lives in mattresses, floors, or in tears in furniture. Magnification: x10 at 6x7cm size.

slide239

Dogtick, seen from the front. This blood- sucking parasite of dogs can transmit to humans a bacteria which causes spotted fever or tick fever, a form of typhus. The tick's specialised mouthparts are adapted to pierce the skin of the host. It has a flattened body which swells after a meal.

Magnification: x22 at 5x7cm size.

slide240

Feeding tick. Coloured scanning electron micrograph of a tick feeding head-down in human skin.

Ticks are arachnids which parasitise mammals, birds and reptiles, feeding on their blood.

In the feeding process, they cut through the skin with the scissor-like action of their modified mouthparts, and thrust their hypostome (feeding tool) through the lacerated skin, and lock into the surrounding tissues.

Ticks can transmit diseases such as relapsing fever and Lyme disease, and their bites may become infected. Magnification: x30 at 6x7cm size.

slide241

Deer tick. Coloured scanning electron micrograph of a deer tick. This is a bloodsucking parasite of animals and humans. Its sensory pedipalps (lower left) are seen shielding its specialised mouthparts, which are used to pierce the host's skin. Hairs on the pedipalps locate the host by detecting air-borne vibrations.

Magnification: x27 at 6x7cm size.

slide243

Bacteria is a single cell organism about 100 times smaller than a human cell.

Bacteria can reproduce outside of a human and are used to create cheese.

They can also cause the food poisoning and tooth decay.

  • So what is Bacteria???
slide245

Chicken skin infected with bacteria

Bacteria found in water

Bacteria on human skin

slide246

A virus is another microbe. It is about 100 000 smaller than a human cell.

A virus needs another cell (a host cell) in order to reproduce.

Viruses are responsible for causing HIV, common cold and chickenpox.

  • So what is a Virus???
slide248

8C Even smaller!

Fungus

Fungi are another form of microbe. There are many different varieties ranging from bread mould to mushrooms.

Yeast is a type of fungus that we use everyday to make bread