An introduction to immunology
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Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003. An introduction to immunology. Aim: A very general introduction to immunology. Explain how molecular interactions are essential for the immune system. Why: Several articles in this seminar deals with interaction between molecules in the immune system.

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An introduction to immunology l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

An introduction to immunology

  • Aim: A very general introduction to immunology. Explain how molecular interactions are essential for the immune system.

  • Why: Several articles in this seminar deals with interaction between molecules in the immune system.

  • Some extra motivation why studies of biomolecular interactions are important.

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Outline of the talk l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Outline of the talk

  • Definition of Immunology

  • History of immunology

  • Innate and adaptive immunity

  • Humoral and cellular responses – B and T cells (specific interactions)

  • Cancer

  • HIV/AIDS

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Immunology l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Immunology

  • Immunology is the study of our protection from foreign macromolecules or invading organisms and our responses to them.

  • Host – e.g. me!!!!

  • Foreign macromolecule, antigen – e.g. virus protein, worm, parasite (Everything that should not be in my body)

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

annet[email protected]


A short history of immunology l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

A Short History of Immunology

  • ~ 430 B.C: Peloponesian War, Thucydides describes plague – the ones who had recovered from the disease could nurse the sick without getting the disease a second time

  • 15th centurry: Chinese and Turks use dried crusts of smallpox as ”vaccine”

  • 1798: Edward Jenner – smallpox vaccine

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Jenner smallpox vaccine l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Jenner - Smallpox vaccine

  • Noticed that milkmades that had contracted cowpox did NOT get smallpox

  • Test on an 8 year old boy, injected cowpox into him (NOT very nice……)

  • Follwed by exposure to smallpox

  • Vaccine was invented (latin vacca means ”cow”)

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


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Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Immunology history cont l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Immunology history cont.

  • Since 1901 there have been 19 Nobel Prizes for immunological research.

  • Examples: Discovery of human blood groups (1930) and Transplantation immunology(1991)

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


The immune system l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Innate (non-specific) immunity

Adaptive (specific) immunity

The immune system

Immune system

  • Anatomic barriers (Skin,mucous membranes)

  • Physological barriers (temperature, pH)

  • Phagocytic Barriers (cells that eat invaders)

  • Inflammatory barriers (redness, swelling, heat and pain)

  • Antigen specificity

  • Diversity

  • Immunological memory

  • Self/nonself recognition

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Humoral and cellular immunity antibody mediated or cellular l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Humoral and cellular immunity(antibody mediated or cellular)

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


B cells l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Antibody secreting B cell

Antigen

Soluble antibodies, circculate in the body

B cells

Surface bound antibody

B-cell

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Slide11 l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

B-cell

Antibody secreting B cell

Virus killed

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


T cells l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

T cells

  • Two types:

    • Helper T cells (Th): activates other cells

    • Cytotoxic T cells (Tc): can kill other cells

  • T cells can only recognize antigens associated with certain molecules (MHC)

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Presentation of antigens to t cells l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Presentation of antigens to T cells

  • Proteins (peptides) from inside the cell are presented by MHC I molecules to Tc cells.

  • Proteins (peptides) from the outside of cells are presented by MHC II molecules to Th cells.

  • MHC I on almost all cells

  • MHC II on specialized antigen-presenting cells

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


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Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Antigen presentig cell

MHC II + peptide

Th

Virus infected cell, cancer cell

Tc

MHC I + peptide

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Slide15 l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Slide16 l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Mhc molecules l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

MHC molecules

  • Important to study what parts of a protein that binds to MHC molecules.

  • MHC I binds peptides with 8-10 aa

  • MHC II bind peptides with 12-25 aa

  • Potentials of peptide vaccines

  • Prediction of peptides is important!!!!

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Cancer l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Cancer

  • The second ranking cause of death after heart disease in the Western world.

  • most organs and tissues in an organism are in balance (death and renewal)

  • cancer cells have no control in growth mechanisms, can expand to a large size producing a tumor

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Hiv and aids l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

HIV and AIDS

  • HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus

  • AIDS - Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

  • HIV virus binds to Th cells and causes the number of Th cells to decrease.

  • When the number of Th cells is too low, you have AIDS.

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


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Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Slide21 l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


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Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


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Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Treatment strategies l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Treatment strategies

  • Inhibit different stages of the lifecycle.

  • HIV protease inhibitors.

  • Peptide Vaccines

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Slide25 l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


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Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Problems with hiv aids l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Problems with HIV/AIDS

  • - No major resistant population

  • - Disease progresses even with ‘protective IR’

  • - No knowledge of what IR is protective

  • - How to elicit a protective IR?

  • - Provirus prevents total eradication

  • - Resistance depends on HIV exposure

  • - No suitable animal model

  • - Legal impediments to prophylactic approach

  • Clinical trial ethical problems

  • - HIV clades – can’t have a worldwide approach

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


Papers in the seminar l.jpg

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

Papers in the seminar!!!!

  • Detailed ab initio prediction of lysozyme-antibody complex with 1.6 Å accuracy (Thomas)

  • A Structure-Based Algorithm to Predict Potential Binding Peptides to MHC I Molecules with Hydrophobic Binding Pockets (Edilson)

  • Prediction of MHC II-binding peptides using an evolutionary algorithm and artificial neural networks (Esteban)

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


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Date

Person(s) talking

Seminar

Winter Semester 2002/2003

30/10/02

Pierre, Andreas, Annette

06/11/02

Shah, Jamaialam; Andreas

13/11/02

No seminar

20/11/02

Josiane, Xavia Pareira; Pierre

27/11/02

Zhu, Hongbo; Raneru, Srinivas

04/12/02

De Aguiar, Edilson; Binsl, Thomas

11/12/02

No seminar

18/12/02

No seminar

Christmas Holiday

08/01/03

Hofmann, Andreas; Graf, Cosima ;Annette

15/01/03

Kaspar, Melanie; Walter, Peter

22/01/03

Kunz, Kerstin; Andres, Daniel

29/01/03

Hussong, René; Yasir, Iqbal

05/02/03

Madrigal-Mova, Cristian; Leon-Soto, Esteban

12/02/03

Abdelhak, Bellamou; Safdar, Ali

19/02/03

Hutter, Barbara; Bingding, Huang

Pierre Dönnes

[email protected]

Andreas Hildebrandt

[email protected]

Annette Höglund

[email protected]


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