Mercury dry deposition
Download
1 / 29

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 210 Views
  • Updated On :

Mercury Dry Deposition. EPA Local-Scale Air Toxics Ambient Monitoring Program Grant University of Nevada Reno – UNR Dr. Mae Gustin, Seth Lyman Frontier Geosciences Dr. Eric Prestbo Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. Grant Program Elements.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - vaughan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Mercury dry deposition l.jpg
Mercury Dry Deposition

  • EPA Local-Scale Air Toxics Ambient Monitoring Program Grant

    • University of Nevada Reno – UNR

      • Dr. Mae Gustin, Seth Lyman

    • Frontier Geosciences

      • Dr. Eric Prestbo

    • Nevada Division of Environmental Protection


Grant program elements l.jpg
Grant Program Elements

  • “Development of broadly-deployable methods for quantifying atmospheric Hg speciation in urban and rural settings in Nevada”

  • Two-year Project

    • Awarded October 2005

    • Funding rec’d & project started June 2006

    • End date to be adjusted to June 2008


Grant program elements3 l.jpg
Grant Program Elements

  • Co-location of project field sites with urban & rural MDN sites

    • Compare concentration & speciation of Hg at urban vs. rural locations

    • Better understanding of dry vs. wet deposition

    • Compare data collected upwind & downwind of naturally enriched areas & potential anthropogenic sources


Grant program elements4 l.jpg
Grant Program Elements

  • Funding

    • $363,890 EPA Grant through NDEP

      • UNR, National Atmospheric Deposition Network & Frontier Geosciences

    • $582,576 Total Project Cost w/ Cost Shares

      • NDEP Equipment (incl. SO2 & O3 analyzers), FTE support and grant management

      • UNR & Frontier Geosciences - cost sharing

      • EPA continued support of MDN sites

      • Lesperance & Gibbs landowner participation


Slide5 l.jpg

Hg(p)

Hg(0)

RGM

RGM

Hg(p)

(e.g. HgCl2, Hg(OH)2)

  • Emission & Re-Emission

  • Natural:

  • Soils & Hg enriched

  • areas

  • Plants

  • Geothermally Active

  • Zones

  • Anthropogenic:

  • Coal fired power plants

  • Waste incineration and other combustion

  • Mining activity

  • Chlor-alkali plants and other chemical production facilities

Overview of the Mercury Cycle

  • Atmospheric Conversion –

  • Sunlight and oxidants (ozone, hydroxyl radical) convert Hg(0) to RGM

  • RGM and Hg(0) sorb to particles and become Hg(p)

  • Complex chemistry

  • Relative amounts*:

  • Hg(0) – 90 to 99%

  • RGM – 0 to 10%

  • Hg(p) – 1 to 5%

  • (*Estimates based on Reno data)

Seth Lyman, UNR


Slide6 l.jpg

Overview of the Mercury Cycle

Hg(p)

Hg(0)

RGM

RGM

Hg(p)

Wet Deposition

Re-emission of deposited mercury

(includes re-emission of both anthropogenic and naturally deposited mercury)

  • Dry Deposition –

  • Not well understood – little data exists

  • Site-specific

  • Projected atmospheric lifetimes:

  • RGM < Hg(p) < Hg(0)

Seth Lyman, UNR


Project building blocks l.jpg
Project Building Blocks

  • Current UNR Project Nearing Completion re Dry Deposition

  • Mae Gustin, Seth Lyman, Frontier Geosciences, Oak Ridge Nat’l Lab, DRI, ranch landowners & EPA R9

  • Preliminary data on Hg speciation in air to develop insight re dry deposition of Hg in Reno & two rural MDN sites


Project building blocks8 l.jpg
Project Building Blocks

  • Development & testing of field protocols for field use of ion exchange membranes

  • Interim project outcomes helped focus lab & field studies and reduce start-up time for new Air Toxics Grant

  • Collaborations in place with Ranchers, labs and others streamlined new grant


Project building blocks9 l.jpg
Project Building Blocks

  • Project Goal: Measure atmospheric mercury species and try different techniques to infer dry deposition at the two Nevada MDN sites. UNR inferred dry deposition by:

    • Deploying Surrogate Surfaces

    • Measuring Soil Flux

    • Deposition on Leaf Surfaces

    • Applied Mathematical Models to measurements of RGM & Hg(p)

    • Compared all collected data and Wet Deposition (MDN) Data


Project building blocks10 l.jpg
Project Building Blocks

  • Deploying Surrogate Surfaces

    • Exposed membrane faces oriented up, down, and vertically

    • 6-day deployment time

    • Trace-clean protocols utilized


Project building blocks11 l.jpg

Mercury soil flux: Measures air-soil Hg(0) exchange – deposition and emission

Tekran 2537A, a 1L chamber, and a switching unit

Project Building Blocks


Nevada mdn study sites l.jpg

Lesperance Ranch

Gibbs Ranch

Reno

Nevada MDN & Study Sites




Expected results l.jpg
Expected Results

  • Dry deposition rates depend on meteorological and surface parameters, as well as the composition of mercury species in the atmosphere.

  • Each of the methods used showed that dry deposition was a significant component of total atmospheric deposition.


Expected results16 l.jpg
Expected Results

  • The different methods showed similar seasonal and geographical variations in the depositional behavior of Hg(0), RGM, and Hg(p), and each form of Hg was found to be a significant and even dominant component of total dry deposition at some sites and/or seasons.


Expected results17 l.jpg
Expected Results

Figure Deleted pending paper publication – for more information contact Jennifer Carr [email protected]


Results to apply to new grant l.jpg
Results to Apply to New Grant

  • Understanding of expected concentrations of different Hg species

  • Understanding of necessary detection limits for ambient samplers & field deployment time periods

    • (use 7 days = time between MDN samples?)

  • Understanding of QA/QC needed to obtain quality field data from passive samplers


Need for air tox grant l.jpg
Need for Air Tox Grant

  • RGM is the most reactive of atmospheric mercury species, has shortest atmospheric residence time & is thought to have the highest deposition velocity

  • Little is known about dry depositional behavior of both RGM and Hg(0), only limited measures of deposition available

  • Tekran equipment is expensive & extensive training is required to operate


Grant program elements20 l.jpg
Grant Program Elements

  • Currently setting up the new Reno MDN site, Ozone & SO2 monitoring equipment

  • UNR is developing a diffusive sampler for RGM with lab testing.

  • Frontier Geosciences is developing a total mercury diffusive sampler for UNR lab testing.


Grant program elements21 l.jpg
Grant Program Elements

  • RGM diffusive samplers will be similar to the dry deposition sampler seen earlier

    • Similar in that the collection surface is a filter that has high affinity for RGM and not elemental mercury

    • Different in that the diffusive sampler collection surface is protected from atmospheric turbulence and, thus, collection to the filter is should be linear relative to RGM air concentration


Grant program elements22 l.jpg

Barriers to turbulence

Diffusive region

Collection surface

Grant Program Elements

  • Nearing final development of an appropriate membrane for diffusive sampling to measure RGM concentrations utilizing apparent affinity for RGM


Grant program elements23 l.jpg
Grant Program Elements

  • Diffusive sampler measures concentration, not deposition

    • For RGM, atmospheric concentration is the most important predictor of depositional flux

    • Concentration can then be used for calculations related to deposition


Grant program elements24 l.jpg
Grant Program Elements

  • After lab testing is complete & units are ready, field testing will occur simultaneously with:

    • Tekran 2537A Gaseous Mercury Analyzer with 1130 (RGM) & 1135 (Hg(p)) speciation unit

    • micro-met and other routine ambient air quality parameters

  • Some testing will also be done by Frontier Geosciences in Seattle, WA to compare effects of climate on sampling system


Grant program elements25 l.jpg
Grant Program Elements

  • After initial field testing is complete, proposal includes broad deployment at:

    • MDN sites (3),

    • a National Park Service AQ monitoring site,

    • transects down wind of a coal-fired power plant,

    • transects down wind of an ore-processing facility, and

    • transects down wind of a naturally enriched (geogenic) area


Grant program elements26 l.jpg
Grant Program Elements

  • This final phase of field deployment will test ability to obtain measurement of RGM on broad scale, in remote locations with minimal training (NDEP as guinea pigs)


Project outcome goals l.jpg
Project Outcome Goals

  • To collect data to advance the understanding of major research questions related to biogeochemical cycle of Hg:

    • Can we do source apportionment by measuring atmospheric speciation using passive sampling systems?

    • How does Hg speciation in urban air compare with that of air at remote sites and those downwind of known anthropogenic sources?


Project outcome goals28 l.jpg
Project Outcome Goals

  • Cont’d:

    • How significant is dry deposition of Hg relative to wet deposition, especially in arid systems?

    • Since the dominant form of Hg in the atmosphere is Hg(0), is the dry deposition of Hg(0) more significant than RGM or Hg(p)?


Ultimate project goals l.jpg
Ultimate Project Goals

  • Develop a system for measurement of Total Atmospheric Hg & RGM that:

    • Can be deployed reliably without high levels of technical training to be done with a simple instructional protocol that is easy to follow

    • Can be low in cost

    • Can be applied nationally


ad