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CpSc 3220 The Language of SQL. Chapters 7-9. The WHERE Clause. Determines which rows of table are to be selected. Syntax of the SELECT statement. SELECT [ALL | DISTINCT | DISTINCTROW ] [HIGH_PRIORITY] [STRAIGHT_JOIN]

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Cpsc 3220 the language of sql

CpSc 3220The Language of SQL

Chapters 7-9

The where clause
The WHERE Clause

  • Determines which rows of table are to be selected

Syntax of the select statement
Syntax of the SELECT statement







select_expr [, select_expr ...]

[FROM table_references

[WHERE where_condition]

[GROUP BY {col_name | expr | position}


[HAVING where_condition]

[ORDER BY {col_name | expr | position}

[ASC | DESC], ...]

[LIMIT {[offset,] row_count | row_count OFFSET offset}]

[PROCEDURE procedure_name(argument_list)]

[INTO OUTFILE 'file_name'

[CHARACTER SET charset_name]


| INTO DUMPFILE 'file_name'

| INTO var_name [, var_name]]


Row based logic
Row-based Logic

  • The where_condition term in the WHERE clause is applied to each row and only those for which the condition is true are selected

  • The where_conditionis very similar to conditional expressions in other languages such as Java and PHP

  • It can be comprised of column variables, literals and operators

Where clause comparison operators
WHERE Clause Comparison Operators

= equals

<> does not equal

!= does not equal

> is greater than

< is less than

>= is greater than or equal to

<= is less than or equal to

Limiting rows
Limiting Rows

  • In MySQL the LIMIT clause can be used to return only a specified number of rows

  • LIMIT n returns the ‘first’ n rows

  • If used after an ORDER clause it will return the first n rows of the sorted table

  • Other DBMSs handle this process differently

Boolean logic
Boolean Logic

  • Boolean operators can be combined with conditional operators to express more complex logical conditions

The and operator
The AND Operator

  • Returns true if both operands are true

    WHERE age > 21 ANDclass = ‘FRESHMAN’

The or operator
The OR Operator

  • Returns true if either or both operands are true

  • Returns false otherwise

    WHERE age > 21 ORclass = ‘FRESHMAN’

The xor operator
The XOR Operator

  • Returns true if one but not both operands are true

  • Returns false otherwise

    WHERE age > 21 XOR class = ‘FRESHMAN’

  • Available in MySQL but not all other DBMSs

The not operator
The NOT Operator

  • A unary operator

  • Returns true if operand is false

  • Returns false if operand is ture


  • AND takes precedence over OR and XOR

  • NOT takes precedence over AND

  • All boolean operators take precedence over conditional operators

  • Parentheses can be used to override precedence

The between operator
The BETWEEN Operator

  • Example:

    WHERE hours BETWEEN 30 AND 59

The in operator
The IN Operator

  • Examples

    WHERE age IN (20,24,45)

    WHERE color IN (‘Red’,’White’,’Blue’)

Boolean logic and null values
Boolean Logic and NULL Values

  • The conditional operators do not work on NULL values

  • The ISNULL function can be used

  • ISNULL(operand,result) returns result if operand is NULL, returns operand otherwise

  • Example:


Inexact matches
Inexact Matches

  • SQL has several ways of handling inexact matches

    • LIKE

    • REGEXP (supported by MySQL)


    • DIFFERENCE (not supported by MySQL)

Pattern matches using like
Pattern Matches Using LIKE

  • WHERE operand LIKE ‘pattern’

  • pattern has two special symbols, % and _

  • % matches any string of any length

  • _ matches a single character

Example matches using like
Example Matches Using LIKE

WHERE name LIKE ‘%ie’

finds all names ending in ie


finds all names starting with th

WHERE name LIKE ‘%ing%’

finds all name containing ing

Matches are case-insensitive

Pattern matches using regexp
Pattern Matches Using REGEXP

  • MySQL supports a REGEXP operator that functions much like the REGEXP in PHP

  • WHERE name REGEXP regexpPatternuses the regexpPattern to match the name operand

  • REGEXP is much the same as the regular expression function in PHP

Matches by sound
Matches by Sound

  • There is a SOUNDEX function which converts a string into a code that reflects its ‘sound value’ and this can be used to find two strings that have the same sound code.