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Aircraft Engine Emission Charges in Europe Emanuel Fleuti Flughafen Zürich AG 2005 PowerPoint Presentation
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Aircraft Engine Emission Charges in Europe Emanuel Fleuti Flughafen Zürich AG 2005

Aircraft Engine Emission Charges in Europe Emanuel Fleuti Flughafen Zürich AG 2005

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Aircraft Engine Emission Charges in Europe Emanuel Fleuti Flughafen Zürich AG 2005

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  1. Aircraft Engine Emission Charges in Europe Emanuel Fleuti Flughafen Zürich AG 2005

  2. Developments as per 2004 Switzerland* Sweden* Zurich, 1997 Sweden (1), 1998 Geneva, 1998 EC ó ECAC Discussion Sweden (2), 2000 Bern, 2001 Industry Request for Model Harmonization ECAC/ANCAT WG "ERLIG", 2001 Recommendation for European Model, 2003 (ECAC/27-4) Next Steps Further Implementation ? Implementation 2004 Implementation *very similar, but not identical model

  3. European Recommendation ECAC RECOMMENDATION ON NOx EMISSION CLASSIFICATION SCHEME* • Basically: absolute NOx-emissions in the standard LTO-cycle • HC to consider (older or newer) engine technology (factor 'a' for regulated engines) • Continuous scale • Applicable to all aircraft > 8,618 kg MTOM • Emission data from ICAO (regulated engines) and FOI (unregulated engines) *adopted by the ECAC: Recommendation ECAC/27-4, July 2003

  4. National Implementation • ECAC Recommendation: • Aircraft > 8,618 kg MTOM • Calculated Emission Values: • Regulated engines (ICAO Data) • Unregulated engines (FOI Data) • Swiss Recommendation: • Aircraft  8,618 kg MTOM • Default Emission Values • (Matrix with #, type and size of engine)

  5. Default Emission Values for Small Aircraft • Emission Values Aircraft according to engine type, size and number of engines • Applicable to all aircraft  8,618 kg MTOM (and above if no detailed emission data is available) * not all turboprop engines are contained in the FOI database

  6. Current Emission Charges in Europe Switzerland (beginning 1.9.1997): - Original Model: g (NOx+VOC)/kN thrust; 5 emission classes; - Surcharge to landing charge of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% - applied at Zurich, Geneva and Bern for all aircraft France (1.1.2003): - applied at Basel: same model as currently applied in Switzerland; - landing charge multiplier of 0.94, 1.05, 1.10, 1.20 and 1.30 (respective of emission class) Sweden (changed per 1.3.2004): - ECAC-Recommendation and Swiss/Swedish Matrix for other aircraft; - SEK 50.00 per kg Emission Value (basically NOx) - Applicable at all airports for all aircraft United Kingdom (new as from 1.4.2004): - applied at BAA Heathrow, only for aircraft >8'618 kg MTOW - NOx-Emissions and Swiss/Swedish Matrix for other aircraft - Bonus/Malus-System - GB£ 1.00 per kg NOx > 23 kg (and rebate of GB£ 1.00/kg NOx < 23 kg) - planned: implementation in Gatwick (1.4.2005) with a bonus/malus threshold of 15.5 kg

  7. European Developments July 2003 ECAC-Recommendation 27-4 endorsed October 2003 Stakeholder Meeting @ECAC in Paris by Sweden and Switzerland 1.3. 2004 Implementation of new model in Sweden 1.4. 2004 Implementation of a model at BAA Heathrow Summer 2004 Legal and advisory framework completed in Germany Summer 2004 New status evaluation at Swiss Airports … 1.4. 2005 Implementation of a model at BAA Gatwick (planned) …

  8. Results (1) • Operational Results • Improvement in Fleet Development:

  9. Results (2) • Environmental Results • Change in Aircraft Operation: • - B747-200 replaced by A340-200: 4.0 t NOx/a*ac and 3.9 t VOC/a*ac (-82%) • - MD82 replaced by A320: 2.0 t NOx/a*ac (-21%) • (1 a/c, daily operations, %-reduction per LTO) • Fixed Ground Power Systems: -75 t NOx (=4.3% of all airport NOx-emissions), • -12,170 t fuel (2001) • Reduction of idling/taxi time: Potential of -17 t NOx and -17 t VOC • (at 2 min/ac, 150,000 cycles in 2000)

  10. Results (3) • Political Results • Aviation Industry • - Marketing with LowNOx-Engines • (CFM56-5DAC) • - Development of new technologies • (Talon Combuster for PW8000) • Politics • - Local/regional acknowledgement • - European discussion (1997) (1998)

  11. Use of Revenues* • Required Air Quality Monitoring (0.25 mio CHF/a) • Required Emission Inventory Calculation (0.15 mio CHF/a) • Required Fixed Ground Power at Piers (3.0 mio CHF/a) • Contribution to CNG fuel station (0.1 mio CHF/a) • Contribution to A/C ground movement • improvements (infrastructure, guidance • systems) *main items

  12. Old Swiss and New European Emission Charges Model • Fundamental Change: • From: Technology Approach To: Emission's Approach • (“polluter-pays-principle“) • Main Points: • Today: New: • Specific Emissions - Emission Value of Aircraft • 5 Emission Classes - Continuous Scale • %-Charge/Class - Charge = f(Emission Value) • Some Aircraft free of charge - all Aircraft pay Models can not be compared => Charges can not be compared