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Section 2. The Middle Kingdoms. After A.D. 400, several large trading kingdoms arose in West Africa. Refugees (people who flee for safety) from Kush brought iron-smelting to the West. Ancient & Present Ghana. Ancient Ghana. Present Day Ghana. Ancient Ghana. Ancient Ghana.

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section 2

Section 2

The Middle Kingdoms

slide2
After A.D. 400, several large trading kingdoms arose in West Africa.

Refugees (people who flee for safety) from Kush brought iron-smelting to the West.

slide4

Ancient Ghana

Present Day

Ghana

ancient ghana1
Ancient Ghana
  • Developed 400 miles NW of present day Ghana
  • Became trading nation
  • Most important goods: salt and gold
ghana
Ghana
  • Founded A.D. 200
  • Began iron-smelting in A.D. 350
  • Leader is the “Ghana”
  • Warriors expanded boundaries and controlled trade
trade develops
Trade Develops
  • Ghana controls trade between north and south
  • Caravans paid in gold nuggets to use routes
  • Ghana rich in gold mines
  • Camel plays huge role introduced in 600s by Arabs
gold salt trade
Gold / Salt Trade
  • Salt from Taghaza (present day Algeria) (Arabs)
  • Gold from Wangara (S.W. Ghana)
  • Merchants used a method called silent barter
silent barter
Silent Barter
  • Merchants would travel to Wangara with salt and other goods; they would put goods down and beat a drum; then retreat
  • Gold miners would leave gold in place
slide14
If merchants were satisfied, they would take gold and leave
  • If not satisfied, they would retreat until gold miners brought more gold
slide16
Gold was then shipped to Europe and Asia for sale

What problems do you

see with foreign

involvement?

decline
Decline
  • Jealousy, fear and anger led to attacks – insignificant
  • 1076 A.D. – Muslims (Almoravid) attacked – weakened empire
  • 1235 – part of the Empire of Mali
ghana1
Ghana

Accra

geography of today s ghana
Geography of Today’s Ghana
  • About the size of Oregon
  • Tropical climate (around equator)
  • No natural harbors along 300 mile coast
  • Tropical swamps
slide22
Brush-covered plains
  • Humid rain-forests
  • 2/3 is savanna
  • 2 rivers: Black Volta & White Volta join to form Volta River which empties into Gulf of Guinea
ashanti
Ashanti
  • 1670s – Osei Tutu
  • Kumasi – chief city
  • Military and trading empire
the golden stool
The Golden Stool
  • tells of the birth of the Ashanti kingdom
  • 1600s – meeting was held of tribal clans
  • Golden Stool was summoned down from heaven by the priest for Ashanti king, Osei Tutu I
  • sacred - contains the 'Sunsum' — spirit or soul of the Ashanti people
british invasion
British Invasion
  • 1823 -1896
  • Asanti finally were defeated in 1900
why did the british want to control ghana
Why did the British want to control Ghana?
  • Resources
  • Compete for world dominion
british control
British Control
  • By 1900, Present day Ghana was under “protection” of Great Britain
  • 1901: Ghana was part of Britain’s Gold Coast colony
slide31

Rebellion

  • British profited from trade of goods in Ghana
  • Colonial peoples began to resist and strike led by Kwame Nkrumah in 1947