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Note to the Instructor:. The following PowerPoint slides include the core concepts and key terms of Chapter 11 in Psychology in Action (8e). Before presentations, you can delete these instructor information slides by simply pressing “delete” on your keyboard.

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slide1
Note to the Instructor:
  • The following PowerPoint slides include the core concepts and key terms of Chapter 11 in Psychology in Action (8e).Before presentations, you can delete these instructor information slides by simply pressing “delete” on your keyboard.
  • If you prefer a different background color or design, click on the upper right corner under “design.”
  • To further personalize and enrich your PowerPoint slides, check the Psychology in Action Instructor Resource site for additional video clips, figures, tables, key terms, etc.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide2
Note to the Instructor (Continued):
  • Each topic listed on the Lecture Outline slide (#4) has been “linked” for your convenience. When in the “presentation mode,” simply click on the topic and you will link directly to the slide(s) of interest. Note that the last slide of each topic includes a “home” icon that will return you to the original Lecture Outline slide. This feature enables you to present chapter topics in any order. Ease of navigation and flexibility in presentation are key elements of a PowerPoint in Action.

Enjoy!

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

psychology in action 8e by karen huffman

Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

Chapter 11:

Gender and Human Sexuality

Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

lecture overview
Lecture Overview
  • Sex and Gender
  • The Study of Human Sexuality
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Sexual Problems

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sex and gender important confusing terms
Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms
  • Sex: biological maleness or femaleness including chromosomal sex; also, sexual behaviors of intercourse/masturbation
  • Gender:psychological and sociocultural meanings added to biological sex

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sex and gender important confusing terms cont
Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.)
  • Gender Identity: self-identification as either a man or a woman
  • Gender Role: societal expectations for normal and appropriate male and female behavior

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sex and gender important confusing terms cont1
Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.)
  • Sexual Orientation: primary erotic attraction toward members of same sex (homosexual, gay, or lesbian), both sexes (bisexual), or other sex (heterosexual)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sex and gender important confusing terms cont2
Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.)
  • Transsexual: gender identity does not match gonads, genitals, or internal accessory organs
  • Transvestite: individuals who cross-dress for emotional and/or sexual gratification; from Latin trans, meaning “to change,” and vestire, meaning “clothing”

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sex and gender important confusing terms cont3
Androgyny: combining characteristics typically male (assertive, athletic) with those considered typically female (yielding, nurturing); from Greek andro, meaning “male,” and gyn, meaning “female”Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

dimensions of sex and gender
Dimensions of Sex and Gender

Sex Dimensions Male Female

1.Chromosomes

2. Gonads

3. Hormones

4. External genitals

5. Internal accessory organs

6. Secondary sex

characteristics

7. Sexual orientation

XY XX

Testes Ovaries

Androgens Estrogens

Penis, scrotum Labia, clitoris,

vaginal opening

Prostate, seminal Vagina, uterus,

vesicles, fallopian tubes,

vas deferens cervix

Beard, low voice, Breasts,

sperm emission menstruation

Heterosexual, gay, Heterosexual,

bisexual lesbian, bisexual

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

male and female internal and external sex organs
Male and Female Internal and External Sex Organs

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

dimensions of sex and gender continued
Gender Dimensions Male Female

8. Gender identity* Perceives self Perceives self

as male as female

9. Gender role ** Masculine Feminine

*Gender identity is self-defined

**Gender role is socially-defined

Dimensions of Sex and Gender (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

gender role development
Gender Role Development
  • Social-learning theory--suggests gender roles develop as children:
      • receive rewards/punishments for gender role behaviors and attitudes.
      • watch and imitate the behaviors and attitudes of others.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

gender role development1
Gender Role Development
  • Cognitive-developmentaltheory--suggestschildren form gender schemas (mental images) of correct behaviors for boys versus girls.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sex differences
Sex Differences
  • Physical anatomy (height, weight, body build, reproductive organs)
  • Functional and structural brain differences:
    • Hypothalamus
    • Corpus callosum
    • Cerebral hemispheres

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide16
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
gender differences
Gender Differences
  • Cognitive abilities
    • Women score higher on verbal skills.
    • Men score higher on math and visuospatial skills.
  • Aggression
    • Men exhibit greater physical aggressiveness.
    • Women supposedly higher on relational aggression, but no clear differences.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the study of human sexuality
Havelock Ellis--among the first physicians to scientifically study human sexuality. He:

found that nocturnal emissions were not dangerous.

emphasized reliable and accurate sex information.

The Study of Human Sexuality

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the study of human sexuality1
The Study of Human Sexuality
  • Alfred Kinsey--among the first touse surveys and interviews to study sexual practices and beliefs.
  • Masters and Johnson--among the first to use laboratory experimentation and observation to study the sexual response cycle.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the study of human sexuality gender and cultural diversity
The Study of Human Sexuality—Gender and Cultural Diversity

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual behavior sexual arousal and response
Sexual Behavior: Sexual Arousal and Response
  • Masters and Johnson’s Sexual Response Cycle
  • Excitement(increasing levels of arousal and engorgement)
  • Plateau (leveling off of high arousal)
  • Orgasm (pleasurable release of tension)
  • Resolution (return to nonaroused state)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual behavior sexual response cycle
Sexual Behavior—Sexual Response Cycle

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual behavior gender and cultural diversity two theories
Sexual Behavior—Gender and Cultural Diversity (Two Theories)

Why are men commonly believed to have greater sexual drive, interest, and activity than women? Two theories:

  • 1. Evolutionary Perspective: Provides adaptive value. Men with multiple partners maximize their genes’ chances for survival, and a woman’s genes’ chances for survival increase with a good protector and provider.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual behavior gender and cultural diversity two theories cont
Sexual Behavior—Gender and Cultural Diversity (Two Theories Cont.)
  • 2. Social Role Approach: Sex differences reflect cultural roles and division of labor. Men are protectors and providers, women are child bearers and homemakers.
    • Note: Social role perspective fits better in cultures where women have less reproductive freedom and educational equality.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual behavior sexual orientation
Sexual Behavior—Sexual Orientation
  • Myths of Homosexuality:
    • Seduction theory: gays and lesbians seduced in childhood by adults of same sex.
    • “By default” theory: gays and lesbians unable to attract partners of opposite sex.
    • Poor parenting: gay men = domineering mothers, weak fathers’ lesbian women = weak or absent mothers .
    • Modeling theory: children imitate gay or lesbian parents.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual behavior sexual orientation1
Sexual Behavior—Sexual Orientation
  • Current Research on Homosexuality:
    • Genetics: twin studies suggest genetic influence on sexual orientation.
    • Prenatal hormones: affect fetal brain development and sexual orientation.
    • Note: Ultimate causes of sexual orientation unknown, but genetics and biology are believed to play dominant roles.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual problems biological factors in sexual dysfunctions
Sexual Problems: Biological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions
  • Sexual behavior = arousal of peripheral sex organs, spinal cord, and brain. Factors that modulate activity within these areas may impair sexual function.
  • Sexual arousal = activation within parasympathetic nervous system, which allows blood flow to sex organs.
  • Sexual orgasm = activation of the sympathetic nervous system.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual problems psychological factors in sexual dysfunctions
Sexual Problems: Psychological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions
  • Negative gender role training (men aggressive and independent, women passive and dependent)
  • Double standard (male sexuality encouraged and female’s discouraged)
  • Unrealistic sexual scripts (socially dictated “appropriate” behaviors limit sexual relations)
  • Performance anxiety (fear of not meeting partner’s sex expectations)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual dysfunctions
Sexual Dysfunctions
  • Male Sexual Problems
    • Erectile dysfunction (impotence--inability to maintain an erection firm enough for intercourse)
    • Premature ejaculation (rapid ejaculation beyond the man’s control)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual dysfunctions1
Sexual Dysfunctions
  • Female Sexual Problems
    • Orgasmic dysfunction (inability or difficulty in reaching orgasm)
    • Vaginismus (painful contraction of the vaginal muscles)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual dysfunctions continued
Sexual Dysfunctions (Continued)
  • Both Male and Female Sexual Problems
    • Dyspareunia(painful intercourse)
    • Inhibited sexual desire (apathetic or disinterested in sex)
    • Sexual aversion (avoids sex due to overwhelming fear or anxiety)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual problems sex therapy
Sexual Problems—Sex Therapy
  • Masters and Johnson’s sex therapy program founded on four principles:
  • Relationship focus
  • Integration of physiological and psychosocial factors
  • Emphasis on cognitive factors
  • Practice with specific behavioral techniques

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual problems sexually transmitted infections stis
Sexual Problems: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sexual problems aids
Sexual Problems--AIDS
  • HIV Positive: being infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): HIV destroys immune system’s ability to fight disease
    • Note: Although AIDS is transmitted only through sexual contact or exposure to infected bodily fluids, many people have irrational fears of contagion.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

psychology in action 8e by karen huffman1

Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

End of Chapter 11:

Gender and Human Sexuality

Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

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