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All-in-One: Improving Urban Service through IntegrationKim HunminProfessor, Dept. of Public AdministrationEwhaWomans UniversitySeoul, KoreaEmail: presented at the International Conference on Good Governance for National Development, United Nations Project Office on Governance, June 17, 2010Millennium Seoul Hilton Hotel, Seoul, Korea

  • Characteristics of all-in-one service
  • Two Korean cases

- 365 Service Center


3. Issues and recommendations

all in one or integrated s ervice system
All-in-one or Integrated Service System
  • Most prominent strategy for government innovations in U.S., Canada, OECD countries
  • Not frequently observed in LDC government innovations
  • Observed in majority of UN Public Service Award winners
  • In Korea initiatives forservice integration are increasing
all in one service definition
All-in-one Service: Definition
  • More commonly known as one-stop service
  • Aggregates several related but separately provided services spanning multiple jurisdictions into a comprehensive single delivery or processing system
  • “one-stop service center is an umbrella organization that operates on top of existing functional departments and is intended to maximize the convenience and satisfaction of users through service integration” (Ho, 2002)
all in one service paradigm
All-in-one Service: Paradigm
  • All-in-one service system requires inter-departmental and/or inter-governmental coordination, collaboration with the private sector, and customer oriented service provision
  • Very similar to the e-government paradigmof coordinated network building, external collaboration, and customer services
  • Change from traditional bureaucratic paradigm of standardization and departmentalization
all in one types
All-in-one: Types


  • First stop: information, referral service
  • Convenience store: diverse service but need 2nd, 3rd stops for specialized service
  • True one-stop

Delivery channel:

- Internet based or not(difficult to distinguish one-stop service projects from e-government projects)

- Physical counter, Call center, Automatic kiosk, Web site/internet

two korean cases
Two Korean Cases
  • Business Support System

“365 Service Center & 365 Biznet”

(Seo-gu District Government in Gwangju Metropolis)

2. Citizen Requested Service System

“U-Prompt Administrative Service System (U-PASS)”

(Cheong-ju City Government in Chungbuk Province)

local government innovations in korea
Local government innovations in Korea

In general,

  • Use of ICT
  • Service integration increasing
  • Place marketing (fairs, local product promotions, tourism events)
  • Least observed are devolution, citizen participation
365 service center biznet
365 Service Center & Biznet


  • Rapidly increasing demand for administrative services as a result of booming business activities in its commercial area which was emerging as a business hub in the metropolitan region
  • District employees overburdened by the sheer volume and wide range of service areas in demand - tax, property registration, permits, small business assistance, building management, banking, etc.
  • Requests piled up, services delayed, complaints and dissatisfaction on the part of the citizens
  • Need to deal with ever mounting demand for services particularly during evening hours and weekends
365 service center biznet1
365 Service Center & Biznet

Searching for Solution:

  • Formed Task Force
  • Conducted user survey
  • Consulted experts
  • Secured budget
  • Built incentives for employees

<Figure 1>

Integrated Business Support System

365 service center biznet2
365 Service Center & Biznet


  • Set up a joint Service Counter with Gwangju Bank at a discount mall
  • Operate 9 am till 10pm
  • Offering banking service, all kinds of certifying documents and licenses, employment and placement service, tourist information, and various business support services
365 service center biznet3
365 Service Center & Biznet
  • Scope of the service expanded:
  • Central government agencies - National Labor Office, Tax Office, Small and Medium Business Administration, and social security service
  • Hospitals and clinics, pharmacies, convention centers, postal offices, etc.
  • Extend hours of operation at these facilities
  • On-line portal, 365 Biznet, to facilitate multiple accesses to integrated services

<Figure 2>

Collaborative Network of 365 Business Support System

365 service center biznet4
365 Service Center & Biznet

Overcoming barriers:

  • Financial constraint – high rental cost of service counter site provided free by discount mall
  • Employees’ resistance – flexibility and strong incentives offered in terms of work
  • Conflict of interests among agencies – gained trust with error prevention measures, emphasized joint gains from flourishing business

<Table 1>

Increase in Services by Time at the 365 Service Center

Source: Seo-gu District Government

365 service center biznet5
365 Service Center & Biznet
  • Presidential Prize, Local Administration Innovation Award in 2007
  • Top Ten Premium Brand of the Local Administration Innovation in 2008
  • Best Prize, Manifesto Best Practice Contest for two consecutive years in 2008 and 2009
  • Highest award as a Model Agency for Serving the Citizens in 2009
u prompt administrative service system
U-Prompt Administrative Service System


  • Before 2007 citizens’ requests and complaints were handled separately by different departments
  • Absence of a department or unit in charge of citizen requested services - comprehensive analysis or systematic processing of citizens service not feasible
  • Many similar and overlapping services were being handled repeatedly by different departments
  • Lack of information sharing and coordination mechanism for services involving two or more departments
  • As requests and complaints increased the biggest complaint by the citizens was that services were provided not promptly enough and often with errors
u pass

Searching for Solution:

  • Formed task force
  • Conducted user survey
  • Consulted experts
  • Adopted principle of customer orientation: listen to citizens, provided fastest service, serve as citizens wish
u pass1


  • Implementation team headed by the vice mayor, consisted of 120 employees represented from 28 departments
  • Service system characteristics

- diverse and numerous input channels for easy access

- computerized comprehensive management system

- supplemented by on-site mobile service system

- diverse delivery channels to match citizens’ needs

- close monitoring of citizens’ demand


<Figure 3> Simplified Process with U-PASS

After(5 steps)

Before (12 steps)

1. Request filed

2. Collected by inspector

3. Draft & approve document

4. Notified to relevant dept.

5. Received by dept.

6. Draft & approve document

7. Assigned to staff

8. Process

9. Draft & approve document

10. Inspector notified

11. Draft & approve document

12. Notify citizen

1. Request filed

2. Collected by inspector

3. Draft & approve document

4. Notified to relevant dept.

5. Received by dept.

6. Draft & approve document

7. Assigned to staff

8. Process

9. Draft & approve document

10. Inspector notified

11. Draft & approve document

12. Notify citizen

Source: Information Communication Department, Cheong-ju City


<Figure 5> Mobile Processing of Services Through PDA

Source: Information Communication Department, Cheong-ju City


<Table 3>

Service Processing Time Before and After U-PASS

  • Source: Information Communication Department, Cheong-ju City

<Table 4> Annual Cost Savings from U-PASS

  • Source: Information Communication Department, Cheong-ju City
u pass2

Overcoming Barriers:

  • As service became speedier more and more citizens made requests for services, input opinions about city administration, and reported conditions in various parts of the city that needed immediate attention
  • The city employees overwhelmed with the burden to respond promptly and accurately to rapidly rising citizens’ requests and inputs
  • Mounting complaints by the city employees was the biggest obstacle to smooth operation of the U-PASS
u pass3
  • Manual developed to make the work easier and simpler to the city employees
  • Incentives to improve performance through U-PASS - best employee citations, foreign travel awards, and performance evaluations include employee’s role in making service more efficient, friendly, and innovative
common factors in both cases
Common Factors in Both Cases
  • Formal planning activities -problem diagnosis, goal setting, designing strategies , defining stages of implementation
  • Set up task force taking charge of addressing the problem and making plans for developing a new system
  • Customer oriented system of service delivery emphasized - user surveys, customer satisfaction indices and other means to understand the users’ needs
common factors in both cases1
Common Factors in Both Cases
  • Shift away from the traditional bureaucratic style of service provision based on departmentalized suppliers’ perspectives and conditions
  • Strong and effective incentives in the personnel system to make extra hours and volumes of work acceptable
  • Most noteworthy aspect - multiple accesses to the system in terms of extended hours and/or diversified input points and/or channels of contact
issues in all in one service system
Issues in All-in-One Service System
  • Lack of formal evaluations of service integration in the public management literature
  • Can be one long, convoluted, and complex maze

- customers get lost while making a choice among multitudes of options given at every step

  • Manned by generalists

- must consult specialists to properly handle a customer’s service request or inquiries

- disenable direct access to specialists

- longer waiting time even with higher manpower costs

  • Diminished access points or channels of contact

- integration mainly for efficiency purposes but at the cost of greater inconvenience to citizens to whom service accessibility has declined

- if internet based service integration replaces off-line service counters citizens without access to computers or knowledge to use them lose service accessibility

- eg: Integration of police stations, community centers, tax service, etc

  • Ambiguous structure of authority, accountability, and responsibility

- power struggle, tendency of participating agencies to pass responsibility to each other,

- issues and challenges of inter-agency coordination and collaboration

  • Failing to take a customer oriented perspective

- designing delivery systems based on supplying agencies’ needs and perspectives

- that is, from being supply oriented rather than demand oriented

  • Meet challenges of inter-agency coordination & collaboration

- overcome resistance, power struggle,

- specify and clarify responsibility, accountability, budget sharing among collaborating agencies

  • Internet based system should not simply replace off-line service with on-line service

- make service available to people unfamiliar with computers

  • Should be designed with a very clear and strong customer orientation, user friendly & simple
  • Should not result in reduction of access points and channels
  • Effective all-in-one system should be not ONE one-stop but composed of MANY one-stops