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Chapter 7. Introduction to Networks Ruth Watson. Objectives (1 of 2). Differentiate between a peer-to-peer network and a client server network Explain the importance of the choice of file system Differentiate between a client computer and a server

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Introduction to Networks

Ruth Watson

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

objectives 1 of 2
Objectives (1 of 2)
  • Differentiate between a peer-to-peer network and a client server network
  • Explain the importance of the choice of file system
  • Differentiate between a client computer and a server
  • List at least three different server services
  • Explain the difference between centralized and decentralized administration
  • Explain the difference between workgroup and domain membership

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

objectives 2 of 2
Objectives (2 of 2)
  • Explain why the NTFS file system is more secure than the FAT file system
  • Define topology
  • Describe the four main topologies
  • Differentiate between a network topology and a network technology
  • Demonstrate how to configure Local Area Connection properties
  • Describe the role of the network interface card (NIC)

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

introduction
Most professionals work in a Networked environment

Security becomes an issue in a networked environment

When designing networks, there are specific guidelines to follow, such as:

Type of Network

File System

Security

When implementing a network, the physical structure includes:

NIC Cards

Cables

Transmission media

Hubs

Switches

Routers

Introduction

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

important terms to understand
Attenuation

Bus

Client/server

Cluster

Ethernet

FAT32

File system

Hub

LAN (local area network)

MAN (metropolitan area network)

Media

Network

NIC (network interface card)

NOS (network operating system)

NTFS

Peer-to-peer

Repeater

Ring

Router

Slack space

Star

Switch

Token Ring

WAN (wide area network)

Important Terms to Understand

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

network scope
Network Scope
  • Local Area Network (LAN)
    • Small Network
    • Usually confined to a building or an office floor
  • Wide Area Network (WAN)
    • Two or more LANs connected together
    • The Internet is an example
  • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
    • Covers a large area, such as a city

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

types of networks peer to peer
Types of Networks - Peer-To-Peer
  • Good for small environments, usually up to 10 computers
  • No dedicated network administrator
  • Each computer must have specific permissions assigned
  • Sharing resources can become a problem if the computer with the resource is down
  • Security is a serious issue

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

types of networks client server
Types of Networks - Client/Server
  • A server has a special Network Operating system (NOS) to help provide resources to multiple users
  • Client/Server environments usually have one or more network administrators
  • Problems can include access, security, and integrity of data
  • Backups are needed in this environment

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

types of networks home networks
Types of Networks - Home Networks
  • Home networks are becoming more popular
    • Typically peer-to-peer
    • Set up is fairly easy
  • A router keeps track of all the computers inside the home network
  • Computers are configured with fake IP addresses that allow them to communicate

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

centralized vs decentralized
Centralized

Client/Server Environment

Resources are on server

Backup is easier

Profiles are easy to keep track of

Decentralized

Peer-to-Peer Environment

Resources are spread out

There are no profiles

Centralized vs. Decentralized

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

workgroup vs domain
Workgroup

Peer-to-Peer Environment

Effective for small environments

Security is a problem

Domain

Client/Server Environment

Effective for larger environments

Network administrator has control

Workgroup vs. Domain

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

files systems
Files Systems
  • A file system keeps track of files and folders
    • DOS uses FAT (File Allocation System
    • Windows 2000 uses NTFS (New Technology File System)

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

choosing a file system
Choosing a File System
  • Files systems keep track of files and folders
  • There are several file systems to choose
  • A file system determines how files can be named and length of file names
  • Each operating systems has its own file system
    • LINUX: ext2 or ext3
    • Windows 2000: NTFS or FAT32

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

security
Security
  • How much security you need helps to determine a file system
  • FAT/FAT32 is good on stand alone computers
  • NTFS should be used on networks

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

network topology bus
Network Topology - Bus
  • Computers are daisy chained together in a linear bus
    • Commonly used in the 1980’s
    • Least expensive
    • Easiest to setup
    • Uses coax cable
    • Data packets are sent along the coax cables
    • All computers hear data sent out
    • A BNC connector is used for the NIC card
    • If there is a break in the computer, the other computers are disturbed

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

network topology star
Network Topology - Star
  • Computers are concentrated into a star pattern using hubs or switches
    • Most LANs use Star topology
    • Uses Category 5 cable (cat 6 is on the way)
    • Cat 5 cable uses an RJ-45 connector for the NIC card
    • Easy to install
    • Not that expensive
    • Hubs broadcast data to all devices
    • Switches can be used instead of hubs
    • Switches can help segment data traffic but are more expensive
    • If there is a break in the cable, it does not disturb the other computers

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

network topology ring
Network Topology - Ring
  • Not used as often as the Star
    • Uses different hardware
    • More expensive
    • Complex to install
    • Best at passing data with less collisions

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

network technology ethernet
Network Technology - Ethernet
  • Ethernet was developed by Bob Metcafe and D.R. Boggs at the Palo Alto Center in the early 1970’s
  • Multiple cables and protocols can be used with Ethernet
  • Different networks can be connected, such as:
    • Windows
    • Macintosh
    • Novell
    • Unix

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

network technology token ring
Network Technology - Token Ring
  • Token Ring uses a different access method
  • Only one device transmits at a time
  • Each device checks to see if the data is for them
  • Fewer collisions

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

protocols
Protocols
  • Protocols are agreed upon rules that networked devices use to communicate
  • Different organizations came up with different protocols
    • TCP/IP resolved issues and enabled all computer platforms to communicate

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

lan components
LAN Components
  • LAN components include:
    • Repeaters
      • Used to amplify data signals due to attenuation
    • Hubs
      • Act as a concentrator to connect several computers
    • Switches
      • Intelligent hubs that segment traffic to avoid collisions
    • Routers
      • Must have to be able to access the Internet

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

network interface card nic
Network Interface Card (NIC)
  • NIC enables computers to communicate through a unique media access control (MAC) address
  • The MAC is burned in at the factory

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

summary
Summary
  • You don’t have to be a technology specialist to network your home
  • Networks range from very small to very large
  • A server has a special operating system on it that allows multiple users to log in at the same time
  • Peer-to-Peer networks require no server, but security is an issue
  • A Client/Server network must have at least one dedicated server and a network administrator
  • There are four ways to connect your network: bus, star, ring, or hybrid
  • Protocols are rules that allow computers and other devices to communicate
  • The most common protocol is TCP/IP

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7

questions
Questions?

Operating Systems Concepts 1/e Ruth Watson Chapter 7