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Monday, November 28, 2011 Sit. Materials out. Backpack in drawer. Silence. Do Now: first, put your workbooks on the desk, open to p. 204, so I can check your homework. Then copy down today’s homework from the agenda board. . Today’s Goals. After today:

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monday november 28 2011 sit materials out backpack in drawer silence
Monday, November 28, 2011Sit. Materials out. Backpack in drawer. Silence.
  • Do Now: first, put your workbooks on the desk, open to p. 204, so I can check your homework.
  • Then copy down today’s homework from the agenda board..
today s goals
Today’s Goals

After today:

  • In a real-life situation (such as in your kitchen or bathroom), you will be able to judge how best to dissolve something in order to clean up a mess or improve your food.
  • To achieve this, you will:
    • Learn what solvents dissolve what solutes and why
    • Learn how to decide what kind of solute you’ve got
    • Learn what factors affect how quickly solutes dissolve
remember from last week
Remember from last week:
  • A substance dissolves in a solvent by separating into its smallest particles
  • (That’s IONS or MOLECULES)
  • Intermolecular forces hold a liquid solution together
factors affecting solubility or what makes something dissolve or not
Factors affecting solubility, orWhat makes something dissolve or not?
  • Remember: a solute dissolves if its particles are more attracted to the solvent than to each other.
  • Remember: molecules are polar or nonpolar
  • Remember: we say a solute is soluble or insoluble in a given solvent.
    • Being soluble is not all or nothing
    • Different solutes dissolve different amounts in a solvent
    • For a given solvent and solute, solubility can be changed
the 1 solubility factor is
The #1 solubility factor is…

Like dissolves like.

like dissolves like
“Like Dissolves Like”

Nonpolar solutesdissolve best in nonpolar solvents

Polar and ionic solutesdissolve best in polar solvents

polar and nonpolar don t dissolve but you can use science to help
Polar and nonpolar don’t dissolve …But you can use science to help.
  • Soap/detergent molecules have a polar end and a nonpolar end.
    • The nonpolar end dissolves grease
    • The polar end dissolves in water
  • You can clean with vinegar, ammonia, and dish soap in spray bottles
nonpolar dirt greasy oily
Nonpolar dirt – greasy, oily
  • In the kitchen: sprayed-on vinegar cleans up grease, tables, walls, doors, floors, windows….
    • Evaporates completely
    • disinfects
  • In the bathroom: Bartender’s Friend (Home Depot) is a stronger acid (wear gloves) that doesn’t use bleach (still disinfects)
more help from science polar
More help from science: polar
  • Most colored compounds dissolve in polar solvents
  • Not all ionic compounds dissolve well in water – but they often dissolve in acetic acid (vinegar) or ammonia solution (basic)
  • Others dissolve in other polar solvents
    • (rubbing alcohol, acetone)
  • If one doesn’t work, TRY ANOTHER
    • (Google is your friend here!)
a little lab activity here
A little lab activity here!
  • And some terms:
    • Solubility: the amount of solute that will dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature
    • Saturated: the solution contains all the solute it can hold at that temperature. If undissolved solid remains in the solution after significant time has passed, it’s probably saturated.
    • Unsaturated: the solution can dissolve more solute
    • Supersaturated: the solution contains MORE solute than it wants to dissolve at that temperature – usually made by making a hot saturated solution and cooling it.
solubility trends more factors
Solubility Trends (More Factors)
  • The solubility of MOST solids increases with temperature.
  • The rateat which solids dissolve increases with increasing surface area of the solid.
  • The solubility of gases decreases with increases in temperature.
  • The solubility of gases increases with the pressure above the solution.
therefore
Therefore…

Solids tend to dissolve best when:

  • Heated
  • Stirred
  • Ground into small particles

Gasestend to dissolve best when:

  • The solution is cold
  • Pressure is high
exit slip no more talking at this time
Exit Slip—No more talking at this time.
  • Put away all your materials except a pencil and today’s notes.
  • You will receive a sheet with several situations you might encounter at home. Use what you’ve learned today to decide how to deal with each.