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Forensic Evidence. In it’s infancy…. Introduction. Today the modern police force takes for granted many of the forensic science techniques used to catch serial sexual psychopathic killers. But how did these techniques develop…. Fingerprinting….

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Forensic evidence

Forensic Evidence

In it’s infancy…


  • Today the modern police force takes for granted many of the forensic science techniques used to catch serial sexual psychopathic killers. But how did these techniques develop…


Fingerprinting is an important method of identifying people. This is because everybody has a unique individual fingerprint. The first person to discover that people had individual fingerprints was a man called Francis Galton in 1892. However, the first person to use fingerprinting as a system of identification in England and Wales was Sir Edward Henry in 1901.


Adipocere is the name given to hydrolysed fat. The formation of this on a body tells us that it has been in anaerobic or oxygen depleted conditions e.g. bogs, submerged locations or a lead coffin. The amount of adipocere formed can also determine how long a body has been dead.

Cold environments
Cold Environments

Soft tissue can be preserved over long periods in the frozen state. The photograph is of John Torrington who died whilst on an ill fated arctic expedition between 1845-48. As the body was well frozen, when it was eventually exhumed in 1984 his body was well preserved with the exception of the eyelids and lips.

Footwear impressions
Footwear Impressions

  • FWIs are virtually left at every crime scene – since entry/exit requires intruders to put their feet down. Peter Pan does not exist – Nobody flies – Tom Cruise is an exception in mission impossible. Not all FWIs are visible to the naked eye.


  • Edmund Locard was the first person to discover the value of trace evidence and its usefulness in solving crimes and convicting criminals. The rule is simple and is called ‘Locard’s Exchange Principle:

  • “Every contact leaves a trace. Criminals will always take with them a trace of something from the crime scene and will always leave behind some trace of having been there.”

Forensic evidence

Glass Fragments

Blood + spatter

Tyre tracks and FWI

Fibres – wool, nylon

What type

of evidence exists…

Insects, finger, ear

and palm prints

Hairs – human/animal


Cigarette ends,

Saliva = DNA

Seeds, spores related to

Specific places

Bullets, tools, knives and


Luminol heme stix
Luminol/Heme Stix

  • HEMATA-STIX and LUMINOL were both developed to provide the investigator with a fast, convenient, sensitive and reliable presumptive test to identify blood at crime scenes.