Cultural information Cultural information Cultural information1 1. Why We Need an Equal Rights Amendment: Why We Need an ERA; The Gender Gap Runs Deep in American Law Martha Burk and Eleanor Smeal Why is the amendment needed? Twenty-three countries — including Sri Lanka and Moldova — have smaller gender gaps in education, politics and health than the United States, according to the World Economic Forum. We are 68th in the world in women's participation in national
Cultural information legislatures. On average, a woman working full time and year-round still makes only 77 cents to a man's dollar. Women hold 98 percent of the low-paying “women’s” jobs and fewer than 15 percent of the board seats at major corporations. Because their private pensions — if they have them at all — are lower and because Social Security puts working women at a disadvantage and grants no credit for years spent at home caring for children or aging parents, three-quarters of the elderly in poverty are women. And in every state except Montana, women still pay higher rates than similarly situated men for almost all kinds of insurance. All that could change if we put equal rights for women in our Constitution. Cultural information2
Cultural information 2. Gender bias in education Cultural information2 Gender bias in education is an insidious problem that causes very few people to stand up and take notice. The victims of this bias have been trained through years of schooling to be silent and passive, and are therefore unwilling to stand up and make noise about the unfair treatment they are receiving. Girls and boys today are receiving separate and unequal educations due to the gender socialization that takes place in our schools and due to the sexist hidden curriculum students are faced with every day. Unless teachers are made aware of the gender-role socialization and the biased messages they are unintentionally imparting to students everyday, and
Cultural information until teachers are provided with the methods and resources necessary to eliminate gender-bias in their classrooms, girls will continue to receive an inequitable education. Sadker, D., Sadker, M. (1994) “Failing at Fairness: How Our Schools Cheat Girls”. Toronto, ON: Simon & Schuster Inc. Cultural information2
Structural analysis Text analysis Text analysis Global Reading-Text analysis1 1. Which two opinions are presented in the first paragraph? There are those who believe that the language that we use everyday is biased in and of itself. Then there are those who feel that language is a reflection of the prejudices that people have within themselves.
Structural analysis Text analysis 2. Which sentences in the conclusion show the writer’s attitude? Global Reading-Text analysis1 In the last paragraph, we find these sentences: “It is necessary for people to make the proper adjustments internally to use appropriate language to effectively include both genders. We qualify language. It is up to us to decide what we will allow to be used and made proper in the area of language.” Evidently, they denote the writer’s attitude toward what we should do about gender bias in language.
Structural analysis Text analysis Structural analysis Structural analysis 1 1. What type of writing is the text? This text is an expositive essay with reference to gender bias in language. 2. What’s the main strategy to develop this expositive essay? The text is mainly developed by means of exemplification. Examples are abundantly used in Paragraphs 2-6.
Structural analysis Text analysis 3. Work out the structure of the text by completing the table. Structural analysis 3 Main idea Paragraph(s) The writer raises the issue to be discussed: Is language the cause of the bias or is it reflective of the preexisting bias that the user holds? 1 The writer provides quite a number of typical examples to illustrate gender bias in language. 2-6 7 The writer makes his attitude or opinion clear on the issue of gender bias in language.
Detailed reading Gender Bias in Language Language is a very powerful element. It is the most common method of communication. Yet it is often misunderstood and misinterpreted, for language is a very complicated mechanism with a great deal ofnuance. There are times when in conversation with another individual, that we must take into account the person’s linguistic genealogy.There are people who use language that would be considered prejudicial or biased in use. But the question that is raised is in regard to language usage: Is language the cause of the bias or is it reflective of the preexisting bias that the user holds? There are those who believe that the language that we use in day-to-day conversation is biased in and of itself. 1 Detailed reading1
Detailed reading They feel that the term “mailman”, for example, is one that excludes women mail carriers. Then there are those who feel that language is a reflection of the prejudices that people have within themselves. That is to say, the words that people choose to use in conversation denote the bias that they harbor within their own existence. Detailed reading2 2 There are words in the English language that are existing or have existed (some of them have changed with the new wave of “political correctness” coming about) that have inherently been sexually biased against women. For example, the person who investigates reported complaints (as from consumers or students), reports findings, and helps to achieve fair and impartial settlements is ombudsman (Merriam-Webster Dictionary), but ombudsperson here at Indiana State University.
Detailed reading This is an example of the gender bias that exists in the English language. The language is arranged so that men are identified with exalted positions, and women are identified with more service-oriented positions in which they are being dominated and instructed by men. So the language used to convey this type of male supremacy is generally reflecting the honored position of the male and the subservience of the female. Even in relationships, the male in the home is often referred to as the “man of the house,” even if it is a 4-year-old child. It is highly insulting to say that a 4-year-old male, based solely on his gender, is more qualified and capable of conducting the business and affairs of the home than his possibly well-educated, highly intellectual mother. There is a definite disparity in that situation. 3 Detailed reading3
Detailed reading In American culture, a woman is valued for the attractiveness of her body, while a man is valued for his physical strength and his achievements. Even in the example of word pairs the bias is evident. The masculine word is put before the feminine word, as in the examples of Mr. and Mrs., his and hers, boys and girls, men and women, kings and queens, brothers and sisters, guys and dolls, and host and hostess. This shows that the usage of many of the English words is also what contributes to the bias present in the English language. Alleen Pace Nilsenn notes that there are instances when women are seen as passive while men are active and bring things into being. She uses the example of the wedding ceremony. In the beginning of the ceremony, the father is 4 Detailed reading4 5
Detailed reading asked who gives the bride away and he answers, “I do.” It is at this point that Nilsen argues that the gender bias comes into play. The traditional concept of the bride as something to be handed from one man (the father) to another man (the husband-to-be) is perpetuated. Another example is in the instance of sexual relationships. The women become brides while men wed women. The man takes away a woman’s virginity and a woman loses her virginity. This denotes her inability, apparently due to her gender, to hold on to something that is a part of her, thus enforcing the man’s ability and right to claim something that is not his. Detailed reading5
Detailed reading To be a man, according to some linguistic differences, would be considered an honor. To be endowed by genetics with the encoding of a male would be as having been shown grace, unmerited favor. There are far greater positive connotations connected with being a man than with being a woman. Nilsen yields the example of “shrew” and “shrewd.” The word “shrew” is taken from the name of a small but especially vicious animal; however in Nilsen’s dictionary, a “shrew” was identified as an “ill-tempered, scolding woman.” However, the word “shrewd,” which comes from the same root, was defined as “marked by clever discerning awareness.” It was noted in her dictionary as a shrewd businessman. It is also commonplace not to scold little girls for being “tomboys” but to scoff at little boys who play with dolls or ride girls’ bicycles. 6 Detailed reading6
Detailed reading In the conversations that come up between friends, you sometimes hear the words “babe,” “broad,” and “chick.” These are words that are used in reference to or directed toward women. It is certainly the person’s right to use these words to reflect women, but why use them when there are so many more to choose from? Language is the most powerful tool of communication and the most effective tool of communication. It is also the most effective weapon of destruction. Although there are biases that exist in the English language, there has been considerable change toward recognizing these biases and making the necessary changes formally so that they will be implemented socially. 7 Detailed reading7 8
Detailed reading It is necessary for people to make the proper adjustments internally to use appropriate language to effectively include both genders. We qualify language. It is up to us to decide what we will allow to be used and made proper in the area of language. 9 Detailed reading8
Detailed reading bias: 1) n. an opinion or feeling that strongly favors one side in an argument or an item in a group or series; predisposition; prejudice Detailed reading1-- bias 1 e.g. This university has a bias towards the sciences. Students were evaluated without bias. 2) vt. to unfairly influence attitudes, choices, or decisions e.g. Several factors could have biased the results of the study.
Detailed reading Collocation: Detailed reading1– bias 2 bias against/towards/in favor of e.g. It’s clear that the company has a bias against women and minorities. Phrase: gender bias: sex prejudice; having bias towards the male and against the female e.g. Gender bias is still quite common in work and payment.
Detailed reading nuance: n. slight, delicate or subtle difference in color, appearance, meaning, feeling, etc. Detailed reading1– nuance e.g. Language teachers should be able to react to nuances of meaning of common words. He was aware of every nuance in her voice. Synonym: subtlety Collocation: nuance of
Detailed reading prejudicial: adj. causing harm to sb’s rights, interests, etc.; having a bad effect on sth. Detailed reading1– prejudicial e.g. These developments are prejudicial to the company’s future. What she said and did was prejudicial to her own rights and interests. Synonyms: damaging, detrimental, prejudicious Derivation: prejudice: n.
Detailed reading Detailed reading1– in/with regard to in/with regard to: in connection with; concerning I have nothing to say in regard to your complaints. She is very sensitive in regard to her family background. I refuted him in regard to his injustice. e.g.
Detailed reading reflective: adj. (of a person, mood, etc.) thoughtful; (of a surface) reflecting light Detailed reading1– reflective e.g. She is in a reflective mood. These are reflective number plates. Derivation: reflectiveness: n.
Detailed reading ... language is a very complicated mechanism with a great deal of nuance. Detailed reading1-- language is … Explanation: … language is a very complicated system of communication. Even slight variations in the pitch, tone, and intensity of the voice and in the choice of words, etc. can express a great deal of subtle shades of meaning.
Detailed reading … we must take into account the person’s linguistic genealogy. Detailed reading1-- we must take Paraphrase: we must consider the person’s long-standing conventions in language use. Translation: 我们必须将这人的语言谱系学考虑在内。
Detailed reading There are people who use language that would be considered prejudicial or biased in use. Detailed reading2-- There are Paraphrase: Some people do use language that would be thought of as expressing disapproval of women. Explanation: Prejudice is an opinion formed without taking the time or care to judge fairly. Such an opinion may be favorable or unfavorable and is held without regard to the evidence available. In this article, prejudice refers to an unfavorable opinion held in this way about women. Translation: 有些人使用那些有可能被认为是具有偏见用法的语言。
Detailed reading Detailed reading1- the language that … the language that we use in day-to-day conversation is biased in and of itself. Paraphrase: … the language we use in everyday conversation reflects in its own nature an unfavorable opinion about women. Translation: 我们日常对话中使用的语言本身就具有偏见。
Detailed reading Paragraph 1 Question What does the writer think of language? Detailed reading1--Quesion The author thinks that language is very powerful and the most common method of communication, but is often misunderstood and misinterpreted, for it is a very complicated system of symbols with plenty of subtle differences.
Detailed reading Detailed reading2—Quesion1 Paragraph 2 Question What is the main idea of Paragraph 2? Paragraph 2 explains and illustrates the fact that some words in English are inherently biased against women and that the English language generally reflects male supremacy and female subservience.
Detailed reading Detailed reading4--Quesion 2 Paragraph 3 Question Which is the topic sentence of Paragraph 3? This shows that the usage of many of the English words is also what contributes to the bias present in the English language.
Detailed reading Detailed reading5—Quesion1 Paragraph 4 Question What do you think of the two examples given in Paragraph 4? The two examples, which are vivid and interesting, are closely related to the main idea that women are seen as passive while men are active and bring things into being.
Detailed reading Detailed reading6—Quesion1 Paragraph 5 Question Which sentence in Paragraph 5 shows that gender connotations in words affect people’s behavior? It is the last sentence, “It is also commonplace not to scold little girls for being ‘tomboys’ but to scoff at little boys who play with dolls or ride girl’s bicycles.”
Detailed reading Detailed reading7—Quesion1 Paragraph 6 Question Which sentences in Paragraph 6 denote the writer’s attitude? The sentences that show the writer’s attitude towards the use of impolite terms in reference to women are “… but why use them when there are so many more to choose from?” and “It is also the most effective weapon of destruction.”
Detailed reading Paragraph 7 Questions 1. What kind change has taken place in regard to gender bias in language? Detailed reading8—Quesion1 People have recognized gender bias in English and made necessary changes. 2. What is the writer’s opinion in reference to gender bias in language? The writer thinks it is necessary to make the proper adjustments internally to use appropriate language to effectively include both genders, and that it is up to our decision of the proper word used.
Detailed reading Detailed reading4-- denote the ... denote the bias that they harbor within their own existence Paraphrase: ... indicate the unfavorable opinion that they hold about women
Detailed reading There are words in the English language that are existing or have existed … that have inherently been sexually biased against women. Detailed reading4-- There are words Paraphrase: Many English words whose meanings make the female gender invisible are a natural part of the English language. Translation: 英语语言中曾经存在过，目前仍然有一些固有的对女性性别歧视的词语。
Detailed reading Detailed reading2-- achieve fair achieve fair and impartial settlements Paraphrase: reach agreements that are fair to both sides Translation: 达成公平公正的协议
Detailed reading denote:vt. be the name, sign or symbol of; refer to; represent or be a sign of something Detailed reading2– denote e.g. What does the word “curriculum” denote that “course” does not? Crosses on the map denote villages. Derivations: denotative: adj. denotation: n. Synonyms: connote indicate
Detailed reading harbor:vt. 1) keep bad thoughts, fears, or hopes in your mind for a long time Detailed reading2– harbor e.g. She began to harbor doubts over the wisdom of their journey. 2) contain something, especially something hidden and dangerous e.g. Sinks and draining boards can harbor germs. 3) protect and hide criminals that the police are searching for e.g. You may be punished if you harbor an escaped criminal or a spy. Derivation: harbor: n.
Detailed reading inherent:adj. used to describe sth. that is a natural part of sth. else and cannot be separated from it Detailed reading2– inherent 1 e.g. I am afraid that the problems you mention are inherent in the system. Every business has its own inherent risks. Collocation: inherent in Derivations: inhere: v. inherence: n.
Detailed reading Detailed reading2– inherent 2 Translation: 这设计本身存在弱点。 There is an inherent weakness in the design. 勤劳俭朴是中华民族的本色。 Industry and frugality are the inherent qualities of the Chinese nation. 爱好音乐是人类固有的特性（爱好音乐是人的天性）。 A love of music is inherent in human nature.
Detailed reading identify: vt. show or prove who sb. is or what sth. is; recognize sb./sth. as being the specified Detailed reading3– identify e.g. He was too far away to be able to identify faces. She identified the man as the attacker. Collocation: identify sth. with sth. else: consider sth. to be; the same as sth. else e.g. The teacher tried to orient his students towards the science subjects. One cannot identify happiness with wealth. The organization is strongly oriented towards research.
Detailed reading orient:vt; orientate; direct sb.’s interest to sth; direct sth. at sb.; specially design sth. for sb. Detailed reading3– orient 1 The teacher tried to orient his students towards the science subjects. Our firm is oriented towards the export side of business. The organization is strongly oriented towards research. e.g. Collocation: be oriented to/towards/around sth./sb. Derivations: orientation: n. oriented: adj. oriental: adj.
Detailed reading Detailed reading3– orient 2 Comparisons: oriented: giving a lot of time, effort, or attention to one particular thing oriental: relating to or from the eastern part of the world, especially China and Japan 1) She has studied the cultures of countries. 2) A lot of the younger students don’t seem to be politically at all. oriental _________ oriented __________
Detailed reading supremacy:n. position of the highest power, authority or status Detailed reading3– supremacy1 Freedom means the supremacy of human rights everywhere. Japan’s supremacy in the field of electronics is being challenged. e.g. Phrases: male supremacy white supremacy Synonym: domination
Detailed reading Collocation: Detailed reading3-- supremacy2 supremacy over sb./ sth. Derivation: supreme: adj.
Detailed reading Detailed reading3– insulting insulting: adj. very rude and offensive to someone e.g. He was most insulting to my wife. He uttered insulting remarks, which hurt the manager. Collocation: insulting to Derivation: insult: n. / vt
Detailed reading disparity: n.(fml) difference or inequality Detailed reading3-- disparity e.g. There is much disparity in age, rank, income and status between them. A comparison of the two accounts revealed numerous disparities. Collocations: disparity in/between Translation: The rich and the poor live side by side, but their conditions are of extraordinary disparity. 虽然富人和穷人住在一起，但他们的条件差距极为悬殊。
Detailed reading contribute to: help in bringing about; have a share in Detailed reading4-- contribute to1 e.g. Alcohol contributes to 100,000 deaths a year in the U.S. The doctor suggested that sufficient fresh air would contribute to good health. Would you like to contribute to our collection? 你愿意给我们的募捐捐款吗？ Derivations: contributing: adj. contribution: n. contributor: n. contributory: adj. contributable: adj.
Detailed reading Phrase: contributing factor: the factor that plays a role in the matter discussed Detailed reading4-- contribute to2 Translation: Human error may have been a contributing factor to the environmental pollution. 人为的错误可能是造成环境污染的一个因素。 All contributions will be gratefully received. 我们对所有的捐助表示感谢。 Older people are important contributors to the economy. 老一辈人为发展经济做出了重要贡献。 Alcohol is a contributory factor in 10% of all road accidents. 所有交通事故当中有百分之十是酒后驾车造成的。