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Chapter 14 . Politics and Government in Global Perspective. Chapter Outline. Politics Power and Authority Political Systems in Global Perspective Perspectives on Power and Political Systems The U.S. Political System. Chapter Outline. Government Bureaucracy The Military and Militarism

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chapter 14

Chapter 14

Politics and Government in Global Perspective

chapter outline
Chapter Outline
  • Politics Power and Authority
  • Political Systems in Global Perspective
  • Perspectives on Power and Political Systems
  • The U.S. Political System
chapter outline3
Chapter Outline
  • Government Bureaucracy
  • The Military and Militarism
  • Terrorism and War
  • Politics and Government in the Future
politics power and authority
Politics, Power and Authority
  • Politics is the social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups.
  • Government is the formal organization that has the legal and political authority to regulate relationships among members of a society and between the society and those outside its borders.
  • The state is the political entity that possesses a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals.
political sociology
Political Sociology
  • Political sociology examines the nature and consequences of power within or between societies, as well as the social and political conflicts that lead to changes in the allocation of power.
  • Political sociology primarily focuses on the social circumstances of politics and explores how the political arena and its actors are intertwined with social institutions such as the economy, religion, education, and the media.
how much do you know about the media
How Much Do You Know About the Media?
  • True or False?
    • Almost all movies in the United States are distributed by six large studios.
how much do you know about the media7
How Much Do You Know About the Media?
  • True.
    • Six major studios—Columbia, Paramount, 20th Century-Fox, MCA/Universal, Time Warner, and Disney—distribute not only the films they produce but also most of the films made by independent producers.
how much do you know about the media8
How Much Do You Know About the Media?
  • True or False?
    • Both major U.S. political parties have been accused of purchasing television commercials with money from questionable campaign contributions.
how much do you know about the media9
How Much Do You Know About the Media?
  • True.
    • “Soft money” contributions, which are made outside the limits imposed by federal election laws, have allegedly been used by both parties for campaign style ads, but leaders of the national political parties claimed that their own ads were about social issues, not candidates.
power and authority
Power and Authority
  • Power is the ability of persons or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others.
  • Authority is power that people accept as legitimate rather than coercive.
ideal types of authority
Ideal Types of Authority
  • Traditional
    • Kings, Queens, Emperors, religious dignitaries
  • Charismatic
    • politicians, soldiers, entertainers
  • Rational–legal
    • elected officials
question
Question
  • Traditional authority is based on:
      • a leader's exceptional personal qualities.
      • written rules and regulations of law.
      • documents such as the U.S. Constitution.
      • long-standing custom.
answer d
Answer: d
  • Traditional authority is based on a long-standing custom.
question14
Question
  • Napoleon, Julius Caesar, Martin Luther King, Jr., Caesar Chavez, and Mother Teresa are examples of:
      • charismatic authority.
      • traditional authority.
      • rational-legal authority.
      • nontraditional authority.
answer a
Answer: a
  • Napoleon, Julius Caesar, Martin Luther King, Jr., Caesar Chavez, and Mother Teresa are examples of charismatic authority.
political systems in global perspective
Political Systems in Global Perspective
  • Political institutions emerged when agrarian societies acquired surpluses and developed social inequality.
  • When cities developed, the city-state became the center of political power.
  • Nation-states emerged as countries acquired the ability to defend their borders.
nation states
Nation-states
  • Approximately 190 nation-states currently exist throughout the world.
  • Today, everyone is born, lives, and dies under the auspices of a nation-state
  • Four types of political systems are found in nation-states: monarchy, authoritarianism, totalitarianism, and democracy.
types of political systems
Types of Political Systems
  • A monarchy is a political system in which power resides in one person or family and is passed from generation to generation through lines of inheritance.
  • Authoritarianism - A political system controlled by rulers who deny popular participation in government.
types of political systems20
Types of Political Systems
  • Totalitarianism - A political system in which the state seeks to regulate all aspects of people's public and private lives.
  • Democracy - A political system in which the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected representatives.
functionalist perspectives pluralist model
Functionalist Perspectives: Pluralist Model
  • The functions of government:
    • maintain law and order
    • plan and direct society
    • meet social needs
    • handle international relations
conflict perspectives elite models
Conflict Perspectives: Elite Models
  • Power in political systems is in the hands of a small group of elites and the masses are relatively powerless.
  • Decisions are made by the elites, who agree on the basic values and goals of society.
  • The needs and concerns of the masses are not often given full consideration by the elite.
purpose of a political party
Purpose of a Political Party
  • Develop and articulate policy positions.
  • Educate voters about issues and simplify the choices for them.
  • Recruit candidates, help them win office, hold them responsible for implementing the party’s positions.
political socialization
Political Socialization
  • Political socialization is the process by which people learn political attitudes, values, and behavior.
voter apathy
Voter Apathy
  • 10% of the voting-age population participates at a level higher than voting.
  • Over the past 40 years, less than half the voting-age population has voted in nonpresidential elections.
  • In many other Western nations, the average turnout is 80 to 90% of all eligible voters.
question26
Question
  • Have you registered to vote?
      • Yes
      • No
      • Not eligible
question27
Question
  • Did you vote in the last election?
      • Yes
      • No
      • Not eligible
why eligible voters don t vote
Why Eligible Voters Don’t Vote

Conservative argument:

  • People are satisfied with the status quo, are uninformed and lack an understanding of government processes.

Liberal argument:

  • People feel alienated from politics due to corruption and influence peddling by special interests and large corporations.
question29
Question
  • _____ is the process by which people learn political attitudes, values, and behavior.
      • Indoctrination
      • Military training
      • Resocialization
      • Political socialization
answer d30
Answer: d
  • Political socialization is the process by which people learn political attitudes, values, and behavior.
question31
Question
  • Generally speaking, do you usually think of yourself as a Republican, Democrat, Independent, or what?
question39
Question
  • How would you characterize your political views?
      • Far left
      • Liberal
      • Middle-of-the-road
      • Conservative
      • Far right
the military and militarism
The Military And Militarism
  • Militarism is a societal focus on military ideals and an aggressive preparedness for war.
explanations for militarism
Explanations for Militarism
  • The economy.
  • The role of the nation and its inclination toward coercion in response to perceived threats.
  • Patriarchy and the relationship between militarism and masculinity.
question44
Question
  • The three-way arrangement in which a private interest group, a congressional committee, and a bureaucratic agency make the final decision on a political issue that is to be decided by that agency is known as:
      • political subversion.
      • the iron law of oligarchy.
      • the iron triangle of power.
      • the power elite.
answer c
Answer: c
  • The three-way arrangement in which a private interest group, a congressional committee, and a bureaucratic agency make the final decision on a political issue that is to be decided by that agency is known as the iron triangle of power.
terrorism
Terrorism
  • Calculated, unlawful physical force or threats of violence against a government, organization, or individual to gain some political, religious, economic, or social objective.
  • Political terrorism uses intimidation, coercion, threats of harm, and other violence that attempts to bring about a significant change in or overthrow an existing government.
types of political terrorism
Types of Political Terrorism
  • Revolutionary terrorism -violence against civilians carried out by enemies of the government who want to bring about change.
  • State-sponsored terrorism - when a government provides money, weapons, and training for terrorists who conduct their activities in other nations.
  • Repressive terrorism - conducted by a government against its citizens to protect existing political order.
slide48
War
  • Organized, armed conflict between nations or distinct political factions.
    • Declared wars : between nations or parties.
    • Undeclared wars: civil and guerrilla wars, covert operations, and terrorism.
  • War involves behavior intended to bring pain, injury, and/or psychological stress to people or to harm or destroy property.
  • War is a form of collective violence.
slide49
War
  • 589 wars have been fought by 142 countries since 1500 and that approximately 142 million lives have been lost.
  • World War I took the lives of approximately 8 million combatants and 1 million civilians.
  • In World War II, more than 50 million people lost their lives.
slide51
1. The formal organization that has the legal and political authority to regulate the relationships among members of a society and between the society and those outside its borders is:
  • government
  • politics
  • state
  • political economy
answer a52
Answer: a
  • The formal organization that has the legal and political authority to regulate the relationships among members of a society and between the society and those outside its borders is government.
slide53
2. A type of political system in which the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected officials is:
  • authoritarianism
  • democracy
  • monarchy
  • totalitarianism
answer b
Answer: b
  • A type of political system in which the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected officials is a democracy.
slide55
3. The social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups is:
  • government
  • politics
  • the state
  • the political economy
answer b56
Answer: b
  • The social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups is politics.
slide57
4. The political entity that possesses a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals is:
  • government
  • politics
  • the state
  • the political economy
answer c58
Answer: c
  • The political entity that possesses a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals is the state.
slide59
5. Rational-Legal Authority has office-holders that are:
  • recognized for their heritage.
  • recognized for their personality.
  • recognized for their abilities.
  • recognized because they were elected or appointed.
answer d60
Answer: d
  • Rational-Legal Authority has office-holders that are recognized because they were elected or appointed.
slide61
6. All of the following are characteristics of the elite model except that
  • decisions are made on behalf of the people by leaders who engage in bargaining, accommodation and compromise.
  • consensus exists among the elite on the basic values and goals of society.
  • Power is highly concentrated at the top of a pyramid-shaped social hierarchy.
  • public policy reflects the values and preferences of the elite.
answer a62
Answer: a
  • Rational-Legal Authority has office-holders that are recognized for their heritage.