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## Fundamentals of Biomechanics

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**Biomechanics**• Applying the concepts of physics and mechanics to the way the body moves and how it applies force to itself and other objects • Understanding biomechanics can help improve performance and reduce injuries in sport**Kinematics**• The study of motion, change in position of the body or object • Linear- motion in a straight line • Curvilinear- motion in a curve • Angular- motion around an axis • General- linear and angular motion together • Activity- In small groups come up with two sporting examples for all types of movement listed above.**Vector vs. Scalar**• Vector- a measurement that has both size and direction • Example: Displacement, Velocity • Scalar- a measurement that only has size • Example: Distance, Speed**Linear and Angular Kinematics**• Displacement vs. Distance • Velocity vs. Speed • Acceleration**Displacement vs. Distance**• Displacement- the change of position of the body or an object from one place to another • Involves both distance and direction • Linear- Movement in a Straight Line (Horizontal, Vertical, Lateral) • Angular- difference between start and finish when moving around an axis • Distance- measure of how far a person or object travels • Has no direction**Velocity and Speed**• Velocity- change in displacement divided by he time it takes for the change to occur • Speed is the size of linear velocity • Speed = distance movedv = s time taken t • Angular Velocity is the change in angular displacement divided by the time for the change to occur.**Acceleration**• Acceleration- change in velocity divided by the time for the change to occur • Can be a change in speed, change in direction or combination of both • Acceleration = change of speed per second • a= v – u(starting velocity) t • Angular acceleration is the change in angular velocity divided by the time for the change to occur**Role Review**• Describe the difference between a vector and a scalar • Define the following terms • Velocity • Displacement • Acceleration**Force**• Using the IPADs research and define Newton’s Three Laws of Motion • Provide and example for each of the three laws**Newton’s First Law of Motion**• An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. • Sometimes called the Law of Inertia**Newton’s Second Law of Motion**• Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object). • Second Law gives us an exact relationship between force, mass, and acceleration. It can be expressed as a mathematical equation: • FORCE = MASS times ACCELERATION • F= mx a (Answer expressed in Newtons)**Newton’s Third Law of Motion**• For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action • for every force there is a reaction force that is equal in size, but opposite in direction.**Role Review**• In your own words and to the best of your recollection, describe Newton’s Three Laws of Motion**Sample Problems**• How much force must be applied by a kicker to give a stationary 2.5-kg ball an acceleration of 40m/s/s? 2. A high jumper with a body weight of 712 N exerts a force of 3000 N against the ground during takeoff. How much force does the ground exert on the high jumper?**Measurement of Force**• Force is measured in Newtons (N) • Defined as the force which produces an acceleration of 1 metre per second squared in a mass of 1 kilogram.**Weight and Gravitational Field**• Gravity is an example of a force field • Force can be exerted on an object without touching • Field exerts a force of 9.81 N kg. (Can be approximated to 10 N kg for calculations purposes) • Example: force exerted on 100kg would be 1000 N**Weight vs. Mass**• In scientific terms weight and mass are not the same • Mass- same everywhere for a given object. Does not change with the gravitational field • Inertia- resistance to acceleration. More inertia an object has the harder it is to accelerate. • Weight- force due to the gravitational field and changes with Gravity • Weight= mass x gravity field strength**Weight and Mass Practice Problems**• A runner has a mass of 68 kg. Calculate the runners weight. • A football player has a weight of 850 N. Calculate the players mass. • A basketball player with a mass of 72 kg jumps off the ground with a force of 2600 N. What is the players net force?**Reaction Forces**• Produced as a result of Newton’s Third Law of Motion • Reaction forces on the ground caused when athlete pushes hard downward on the ground. Force in the opposite direction pushes up on the athlete • Reaction forces can also be applied to the impact between sportsperson and an object. (ex. golf, soccer, tennis racket)**Reaction Force-Practice Problems**• A golf ball weighing 0.5kg is hit with an initial velocity of 74 m/s. What is the force exerted on the golf ball at impact? At impact how much force is exerted against the club? • A 70 kg long jumper lands in the sand with a force of 2800 N. Calculate the net force exerted on the jumper. What is the rate of deceleration?**Work, Energy and Motion**• Work= force x distance moved in the direction of force. • Kinetic Energy – mechanical energy possessed by a moving object or body by virtue of motion • KE = ½ x mass x (velocity)2 (Answer in Joules) Example: Shot Put**Momentum Basics**• Momentum is another vector measurement. Momentum is in the same direction as velocity. • Scientists calculate momentum by multiplying the mass of the object by the velocity of the object. It is an indication of how hard it would be to stop the object. • If you were running, you might have a mass of 50 kilograms and a velocity of 10 meters per second west (really fast). Your momentum would be 500 kg-m/sec west. Easy as pi**Momentum and Impulse**• Momentum- the property an object has due to its movement. • P= mxv (P=momentum, M= Mass V= Velocity) • Impulse- force multiplied by the time it acts • Impulse = F xt (F=Force, t = time)**Momentum-Impulse Relationship**• Linear impulse = change in linear momentum • Size and direction of change of momentum depends on the force acting upon it and for how long • Example- Bat hitting a baseball • Impulse = change of momentum • F xt = change of (mxv)**Levers**• Internals Forces- forces exerted on one part of the body on another. • When muscle contracts origin and insertions are pulled together • Ex.- Bicep Curl**Class 1 Lever**• The fulcrum lies between the effort and the load • Ex. Skull-Neck, Tricep-Elbow Joint**Class 2 Lever**• Lever where the fulcrum is at one end, the effort at the other and the load lies between them.**Class 3 Levers**• Levers where the fulcrum and load are at opposite ends with the effort in the middle • Effort is always larger than the load because the effort is nearer the fulcrum • Most common type of levers found in the human body**Torque (Moment)**• If force applied to an object that is free to move around an axis then torque is created • Sometimes referred to as Moment of Force Equation: Moment of Force= force x distance to fulcrum (Nm) Size of the Torque depends on 1. the size of the force 2. the direction of the force 3. how far the force is applied from axis**Biomechanics and Force**• Does a persons biomechanics effect their ability to create force? Explain • In partners brainstorm 1 sporting events where a person with shorter limbs would have a mechanical advantage and 1 sport where a person with longer limbs would have a mechanical advantage. Explain your answers.**Centre of Mass**• Using your course companions pgs. 96-98 complete the following questions • Define Centre of Mass • Describe factors that will effect where the centre of mass lies within an individual • List three reasons why knowing the centre of mass is important.**Group Role Review**• In small groups complete the following two questions. (Use diagrams to help) • 1. Describe and apply Newton’s second and third laws of motion to a sprinter leaving the starting blocks. • Define Newton’s Laws (Include Reaction Force) • Provide a detailed description or diagram to represent your answer • 2. Describe the relationship between impulse and momentum on a high jumper • Define both terms (impulse and momentum) • Apply terms to the approach and jump**Centre of Mass**• How might body position effect a persons centre of mass. (Refer to Definition) Explain your answer. • In groups brainstorm and record sports where the centre of mass remains within the body throughout the movement and activities where the centre of mass temporarily lies outside the body.**Projectile Motion**• In groups throw four objects, a tennis ball, a softball, a table tennis ball and a birdie with the same velocity and height of release • Draw the approximate flight path of each • Brainstorm all the factors that affect the flight path and distance for each of the items used. • Describe how spin may effect both flight path and distance**Rotating Systems**• Angular Displacement- similar to linear displacement, the elative angle compared to some fixed position or line • Ex. – Golf Swing from starting position • Measured in radians • 1 degree = 0.017453 Radians**Moment of Inertia**• Is the resistance to rotational motion • The bigger the moment of inertia the larger the moment of force to provide angular acceleration • Same as linear situation but instead of moving in a line, object or body moves around an axis**Brainstorm**• When thinking about an object or body rotating around an axis, what factors will effect the moment of inertia? Explain your answers. • Apply those factors to different sporting activities.**Angular Momentum**• Angular Momentum is defined as: • Angular velocity X moment of inertia • Enables explanation of why the rate of spin changes when the moment of inertia changes • Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum**Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum**• Law states that “the angular momentum of a system remains constant throughout a movement provided nothing outside the system with a turning moment acts upon it” (Davis et.al) • Ex.- a skater already spinning changes their moment of inertia (changing body position), then the rate of spin will also change**Angular Velocity**• Angular Velocity is defined as: • Angular Velocity = angle turned (in radians) time taken to turn • Concept applies to situations where rate of spin changes with time • Ex. hammer throw