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Human Geography Models

Human Geography Models

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Human Geography Models

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  1. Human Geography Models

  2. Demographic Transition Model

  3. Stage One • Every country in the world has moved out of Stage 1 and into at least Stage 2 • High CBR’s and CDR’s: (Roughly around 35 to 40 per 1,000) • Agricultural Revolution: (8000 B.C.E.): huge boost in population but remained in Stage 1 because of unpredictable harvests, wars, famine, and disease.

  4. Stage 2 • CDR drops significantly: • Industrial Revolution: caused population to grow 10x faster. • 1750 grew 500,000 1800 grew 5 million • Infrastructure improved: sewers installed; food and water supply safeguarded from contamination. • CBR stays high. NIR very high because of gap between CDR and CBR

  5. Stage 2 • Europe and North America entered stage 2 around 1800 • Most other countries (Africa, Asia, and Latin America) around 1950 Medical Revolution: caused Africa, Asia, and Latin America to push into stage 2; Unlike Europe and North America. Medical technology invented in Europe and North America diffused to LDC’s.

  6. Stage 3 • CBR’s drop because of conscious decision to have fewer children. • CDR continues to fall but at a slower rate than in stage 2. Population continues to grow but at slower rates. • Growth of Cities

  7. Stage 3 • Europe and North America moved to Stage 3 during the first half of the 20th century • Latin America and Asia moved to stage 3 more recently • Many African nations are still in stage 2 One and done son! What were we thinking?

  8. Stage 4 • When CBR and CDR equal one another. • (Around 10 per 1,000) NIR equals zero. Zero Population Growth: • CBR may be slightly higher than CDR because some females die before they reproduce. • During ZPG Total Fertility Rates are more often measured. When the TFR is 2.1 the population replaces itself and there is no growth (or decline)

  9. Epidemiologic Transition ModelWhy do we die?

  10. Stage 1: Epidemics and Natural Checks (pestilence and famine) • Epidemics: The Black Plague (Bubonic Plague) • Natural Checks: animal and human attacks as well as accidents. Famine

  11. Stage 2: Receding Pandemics • Pandemic: a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high portion of the population. • At first crowded cities and living conditions kept death rates high. Cholera spread easily through crowded urban centers. • Why: improved sanitation, nutrition, and medicine during the Industrial Revolution reduced spread of these diseases.

  12. Stage 3: Degenerative and Human-Created Diseases • Decrease in deaths from infectious diseases and an increase in chronic disorders associated with aging. Cardiovascular diseases (heart attacks) and cancer • Vaccines are responsible for this decline.

  13. Stage 4: Delayed Degenerative Diseases • Medical advances prolong life by helping people with cardiovascular diseases and cancer to live longer. • People are more aware of these diseases and practice better lifestyles to avoid them. Dieting and exercising.

  14. Stage 5: Evolution of Infectious Diseases • Some say we are moving into a stage 5 • Evolution: microbes constantly develop resistance to drugs and new strands emerge. • Improved Travel causes further spread; cars connect urban to rural. Airplanes connect countries

  15. Gravity Model • Migration • Large places attract more people • Closer places are of higher attraction • Therefore people will migrate to the next largest city. • “migration between two places is directly proportionate to population and inversely proportionate to distance”

  16. Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration • Migrants travel short distance • Migrants who travel far tend to go to larger cities. • Rural residents are more likely to migrate than urban. • Families less likely to migrate across national borders.

  17. Chain Migration

  18. Language Trees Indo European Sino-Tibetan Niger-Congo • Family (Indo European) • Branch (Germanic) • Group (West Germanic) • Language (English) • Dialect (Southern, New England, etc.) Mandarin Chinese Spanish English

  19. Universalizing vs Ethnic Religion • Christianity • Buddhism • Islam • Hinduism • Judaism How do they tie into diffusion? Largest? Fastest Growing?

  20. Theories of World Domination

  21. Heartland Theory by MacKinder • suggests that whoever owns Eastern Europe and Western Asia has the political power and capital to rule the world. • Eastern Europe contained one of the richest agricultural regions, which could sustain a large population. • Also, raw materials were available to build a military and industrial base. • Hitler believed in this theory.

  22. Heartland Theory

  23. Rimland Theory by Spykman • believes that forming alliances is necessary to keep the Heartland in check. • Heartland may control the land but the Rimland will control the sea. • To the north of the Heartland is icebound ocean. • The Rimland would use the oceans to contain the Heartland.

  24. How do these theories tie into the Economic/Industrialization Unit? • How do these theories tie into the Agricultural Unit?

  25. Domino Theory • when one country experiences rebellion or political unrest, other countries around it will also experience turmoil as a result, leading to a domino effect. • Developed by US in the 1960’s and 1970’s on communism.

  26. Organic Theory of Colonialism • the state is like a living entity that constantly needed to grow and thrive. States constantly need new territory to meet the demands of their ever-growing population. ~Friedrich Ratzel

  27. 3 main reasons for colonizing • GOD • Europeans spreading Christianity. • Persecuted religious minorities emigrate to establish colonies • GLORY • GOLD • El Dorado

  28. Main Colonizers • British- America (Settlement) • French- Canada (Settlement) • Spain- Latin America (Land ) • Portuguese- Brazil (Sea) • How do these tie into Language and Religion? • Diffusion?

  29. Dependency Theory • Many countries are poor today because of their colonization by European powers. • Former colonies have not been able to heal from the imperial domination established by the colonizers. • The continued economic dependence of new states on their former colonial masters is called neocolonialism

  30. World Systems by Wallerstein • Divides the world into three groups • Core: Economically developed • Periphery: Undeveloped economies • Semi-Periphery: developing economies • Wallerstein argues that the Core can only exist by exploiting the peripheral countries. So we will never have 100% of the countries in the world fully developed.

  31. Territorial Morphology Examples

  32. Compact

  33. Prorupted

  34. Elongated

  35. Fragmented

  36. Perforated

  37. First Agricultural Revolution • AKA Neolithic Revolution • People began to discover how to bring the food to them rather than chasing their food. • Leads to domestication of animals and the development of civilizations.

  38. Vegetative Planting: removing part of a plant and putting it in the ground to grow a new plant. • Seed Agriculture: planting seeds of existing plants to produce new plants. • Practice more often today than V.P.

  39. Second Agricultural Revolution • Used technology of Industrial Revolution to increase production and distribution of products on farms. • 1750-1900 Occurred in MDC’s • Transportation advancements were crucial in getting food to markets before they spoil • Cause a reduction in the number of farmers

  40. Third Agricultural Revolution • AKA Green Revolution • Involves the use of biotechnology or genetic engineering. • Increase in the use of chemical fertilizers. • Diffused to LDC’s in the 1970’s • More food to reduce starvation

  41. Third Agricultural Revolution • Negative effects: • Higher-yielding crop strains are often more prone to viruses and pest infestations. • Many of these new crops (rice and wheat) cannot be grown in dryer African regions where hunger is a problem • Created economic inequalities. • Health problems from chemicals • Overwork the land

  42. Peep this model class Von Thunen’s Model of Agriculture Land Use

  43. Year 1826 • Model suggests that certain crops are grown in direct relation to their distance from the market. • If the farmer grows products that don’t fit the model, the farmer will go bankrupt from the increased cost of production and transportation.

  44. The central marketplace is surrounded by agriculture rings. • Moving outward from the marketplace, the farming activities change from intensive to more extensive.

  45. 1. Market Gardening Activities and Dairy: • heavy, bulky, products. Why: • Spoil factor • Weight and mass raises transportation costs.

  46. 2. Forestry: • woodlots where trees are cut for resources. Why: -weight increases transportation costs.

  47. 3. Mixed Crop and Livestock • Why: -land is cheaper, further from urban centers -livestock is transported to town only a couple times a year, reducing costs.

  48. 4. Extensive Pastoral Grazing Why: -price of land and amount of land needed.

  49. Things Not Considered by Von Thunen Why you gotta poke holes in my Theory dog? • - physical features of the land • -assumes all land is the same quality • -social customs and govt. policies influence what is grown.