Stage One • Every country in the world has moved out of Stage 1 and into at least Stage 2 • High CBR’s and CDR’s: (Roughly around 35 to 40 per 1,000) • Agricultural Revolution: (8000 B.C.E.): huge boost in population but remained in Stage 1 because of unpredictable harvests, wars, famine, and disease.
Stage 2 • CDR drops significantly: • Industrial Revolution: caused population to grow 10x faster. • 1750 grew 500,000 1800 grew 5 million • Infrastructure improved: sewers installed; food and water supply safeguarded from contamination. • CBR stays high. NIR very high because of gap between CDR and CBR
Stage 2 • Europe and North America entered stage 2 around 1800 • Most other countries (Africa, Asia, and Latin America) around 1950 Medical Revolution: caused Africa, Asia, and Latin America to push into stage 2; Unlike Europe and North America. Medical technology invented in Europe and North America diffused to LDC’s.
Stage 3 • CBR’s drop because of conscious decision to have fewer children. • CDR continues to fall but at a slower rate than in stage 2. Population continues to grow but at slower rates. • Growth of Cities
Stage 3 • Europe and North America moved to Stage 3 during the first half of the 20th century • Latin America and Asia moved to stage 3 more recently • Many African nations are still in stage 2 One and done son! What were we thinking?
Stage 4 • When CBR and CDR equal one another. • (Around 10 per 1,000) NIR equals zero. Zero Population Growth: • CBR may be slightly higher than CDR because some females die before they reproduce. • During ZPG Total Fertility Rates are more often measured. When the TFR is 2.1 the population replaces itself and there is no growth (or decline)
Stage 1: Epidemics and Natural Checks (pestilence and famine) • Epidemics: The Black Plague (Bubonic Plague) • Natural Checks: animal and human attacks as well as accidents. Famine
Stage 2: Receding Pandemics • Pandemic: a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high portion of the population. • At first crowded cities and living conditions kept death rates high. Cholera spread easily through crowded urban centers. • Why: improved sanitation, nutrition, and medicine during the Industrial Revolution reduced spread of these diseases.
Stage 3: Degenerative and Human-Created Diseases • Decrease in deaths from infectious diseases and an increase in chronic disorders associated with aging. Cardiovascular diseases (heart attacks) and cancer • Vaccines are responsible for this decline.
Stage 4: Delayed Degenerative Diseases • Medical advances prolong life by helping people with cardiovascular diseases and cancer to live longer. • People are more aware of these diseases and practice better lifestyles to avoid them. Dieting and exercising.
Stage 5: Evolution of Infectious Diseases • Some say we are moving into a stage 5 • Evolution: microbes constantly develop resistance to drugs and new strands emerge. • Improved Travel causes further spread; cars connect urban to rural. Airplanes connect countries
Gravity Model • Migration • Large places attract more people • Closer places are of higher attraction • Therefore people will migrate to the next largest city. • “migration between two places is directly proportionate to population and inversely proportionate to distance”
Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration • Migrants travel short distance • Migrants who travel far tend to go to larger cities. • Rural residents are more likely to migrate than urban. • Families less likely to migrate across national borders.
Language Trees Indo European Sino-Tibetan Niger-Congo • Family (Indo European) • Branch (Germanic) • Group (West Germanic) • Language (English) • Dialect (Southern, New England, etc.) Mandarin Chinese Spanish English
Universalizing vs Ethnic Religion • Christianity • Buddhism • Islam • Hinduism • Judaism How do they tie into diffusion? Largest? Fastest Growing?
Heartland Theory by MacKinder • suggests that whoever owns Eastern Europe and Western Asia has the political power and capital to rule the world. • Eastern Europe contained one of the richest agricultural regions, which could sustain a large population. • Also, raw materials were available to build a military and industrial base. • Hitler believed in this theory.
Rimland Theory by Spykman • believes that forming alliances is necessary to keep the Heartland in check. • Heartland may control the land but the Rimland will control the sea. • To the north of the Heartland is icebound ocean. • The Rimland would use the oceans to contain the Heartland.
How do these theories tie into the Economic/Industrialization Unit? • How do these theories tie into the Agricultural Unit?
Domino Theory • when one country experiences rebellion or political unrest, other countries around it will also experience turmoil as a result, leading to a domino effect. • Developed by US in the 1960’s and 1970’s on communism.
Organic Theory of Colonialism • the state is like a living entity that constantly needed to grow and thrive. States constantly need new territory to meet the demands of their ever-growing population. ~Friedrich Ratzel
3 main reasons for colonizing • GOD • Europeans spreading Christianity. • Persecuted religious minorities emigrate to establish colonies • GLORY • GOLD • El Dorado
Main Colonizers • British- America (Settlement) • French- Canada (Settlement) • Spain- Latin America (Land ) • Portuguese- Brazil (Sea) • How do these tie into Language and Religion? • Diffusion?
Dependency Theory • Many countries are poor today because of their colonization by European powers. • Former colonies have not been able to heal from the imperial domination established by the colonizers. • The continued economic dependence of new states on their former colonial masters is called neocolonialism
World Systems by Wallerstein • Divides the world into three groups • Core: Economically developed • Periphery: Undeveloped economies • Semi-Periphery: developing economies • Wallerstein argues that the Core can only exist by exploiting the peripheral countries. So we will never have 100% of the countries in the world fully developed.
Territorial Morphology Examples
First Agricultural Revolution • AKA Neolithic Revolution • People began to discover how to bring the food to them rather than chasing their food. • Leads to domestication of animals and the development of civilizations.
Vegetative Planting: removing part of a plant and putting it in the ground to grow a new plant. • Seed Agriculture: planting seeds of existing plants to produce new plants. • Practice more often today than V.P.
Second Agricultural Revolution • Used technology of Industrial Revolution to increase production and distribution of products on farms. • 1750-1900 Occurred in MDC’s • Transportation advancements were crucial in getting food to markets before they spoil • Cause a reduction in the number of farmers
Third Agricultural Revolution • AKA Green Revolution • Involves the use of biotechnology or genetic engineering. • Increase in the use of chemical fertilizers. • Diffused to LDC’s in the 1970’s • More food to reduce starvation
Third Agricultural Revolution • Negative effects: • Higher-yielding crop strains are often more prone to viruses and pest infestations. • Many of these new crops (rice and wheat) cannot be grown in dryer African regions where hunger is a problem • Created economic inequalities. • Health problems from chemicals • Overwork the land
Peep this model class Von Thunen’s Model of Agriculture Land Use
Year 1826 • Model suggests that certain crops are grown in direct relation to their distance from the market. • If the farmer grows products that don’t fit the model, the farmer will go bankrupt from the increased cost of production and transportation.
The central marketplace is surrounded by agriculture rings. • Moving outward from the marketplace, the farming activities change from intensive to more extensive.
1. Market Gardening Activities and Dairy: • heavy, bulky, products. Why: • Spoil factor • Weight and mass raises transportation costs.
2. Forestry: • woodlots where trees are cut for resources. Why: -weight increases transportation costs.
3. Mixed Crop and Livestock • Why: -land is cheaper, further from urban centers -livestock is transported to town only a couple times a year, reducing costs.
4. Extensive Pastoral Grazing Why: -price of land and amount of land needed.
Things Not Considered by Von Thunen Why you gotta poke holes in my Theory dog? • - physical features of the land • -assumes all land is the same quality • -social customs and govt. policies influence what is grown.