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MBA 8452 Systems and Operations Management. Facility Layout. Objective: Manufacturing Design. Be able to identify and explain the different Facilities Layout Be able to Solve Problems using Assembly Line Balancing. Facility Layout.

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objective manufacturing design
Objective: Manufacturing Design
  • Be able to identify and explain the different Facilities Layout
  • Be able to Solve Problems using Assembly Line Balancing
facility layout
Facility Layout
  • The physical arrangement of everything needed for production of goods or services
    • equipment/machines
    • raw materials/finished goods storage areas
    • departments/workstations
    • aisles and common areas
benefits of good layout
Benefits of Good Layout
  • Overall, improved effectiveness and efficiency of the production system
    • Higher utilization of space, equipment, and people
    • Improved flow of information, materials, and work
    • More convenience to the customer
    • Improved employee morale and working conditions
basic production layouts
Basic Production Layouts
  • Process Layout
  • Product Layout
  • Group Technology (Cellular) Layout
  • Fixed-Position Layout
process layout
Process Layout
  • Similar activities and machines/operations are grouped together by functions into departments or work centers (job shops)
    • Low-volume high-variety products
    • Inputs follow different paths for processing
    • Examples: department stores, universities, hospitals
process layout example manufacturing
Process Layout Example:Manufacturing

Milling

Department

Lathe Department

Drilling Department

L

L

M

M

D

D

D

D

M

M

D

D

D

D

L

L

L

L

G

G

G

P

G

G

G

P

L

L

Painting Department

Grinding

Department

L

L

A

A

A

Receiving and

Shipping

Assembly

process layout example service

Women’s

lingerie

Shoes

Housewares

Women’s

dresses

Cosmetics

& Jewelry

Children’s

department

Entry &

display area

Men’s

department

Women’s

sportswear

Process Layout Example:Service
designing process layout
Designing Process Layout
  • What factors might we consider when determining the locations of process areas, or departments?
    • interdepartmental transportation
    • material handling costs
    • space & labor utilization
    • flexibility
    • etc.
product layout
Product Layout
  • Activities and machines/operations are arranged sequentially in order by product specifications (flow shops)
    • High-volume standardized products
    • Inputs follow the same path
    • Examples: assembly lines
assembly line balancing

Station 1

Station 2

Station 3

1

2

3

4

5

6

5 min/unit

8 min/unit

3 min/unit

task

Assembly Line Balancing
  • The Problem: how to organize jobs or tasks such that each station has the same work load/time for processing a unit?

What’s the problem here?

line balancing example

Task

Time (Mins)

Description

Predecessors

A

2

Assemble frame

None

B

1

Mount switch

A

C

3.25

Assemble motor housing

None

D

1.2

Mount motor housing in frame

A, C

E

0.5

Attach blade

D

F

1

Assemble and attach safety grill

E

G

1

Attach cord

B

H

1.4

Test

F, G

Line BalancingExample
  • You’ve been assigned the job of setting up an electric fan assembly line with the following tasks:
step 1 draw precedence diagram

2

1

1

1.4

A

B

G

H

C

D

E

F

3.25

1.2

.5

1

Step 1: Draw Precedence Diagram
  • Which process step defines the maximum rate of production?
the bottleneck

Task

Time (Mins)

Description

Predecessors

A

2

Assemble frame

None

B

1

Mount switch

A

C

3.25

Assemble motor housing

None

D

1.2

Mount motor housing in frame

A, C

E

0.5

Attach blade

D

F

1

Assemble and attach safety grill

E

G

1

Attach cord

B

H

1.4

Test

F, G

The Bottleneck
step 2 compute required cycle time
Step 2:Compute Required Cycle Time
  • If we are required to assembly 100 fans per day and we know that total production time per day is 420 mins = 7 hrs  60 min/hr, then

What does this figure represent?

step 4 use heuristic rules to assign tasks to stations
Step 4: Use Heuristic Rules to Assign Tasks to Stations
  • most-following task rule
    • Assign tasks in order of the largest number of following tasks
  • longest task time rule
    • Assign tasks in order of the longest task time

Note: One of these rules can be used as the primary rule and another as the secondary tie-breaking rule

step 4 cont
Step 4:Cont.
  • If we try the most-followers rule as the primary rule and the longest task time as tie-breaking rule
step 5 evaluate efficiency of the line
Step 5: Evaluate Efficiency of the Line

Note: If efficiency is unsatisfactory, rebalance using another rule to improve efficiency

example some further questions
Example: Some Further Questions
  • What is the effective/achieved cycle time?

Answer: 4.1 mins.

  • What is the idle time of station 1? Total idle time of the assembly line?

Answer: 0.2 mins and 1.25 mins, respectively

  • Which station is the bottleneck?

Answer: station 3

product vs process layouts
Product vs. Process Layouts

PRODUCT LAYOUTPROCESS LAYOUT

1. DescriptionSequential arrangement Functional grouping

of machines of machines

2. Process Continuous, mass prod. Intermittent, job shop

3. Product Standardized, make-to-stock Varied, make-to-order

4. Demand Stable Fluctuating

5. Volume High Low

6. Equipment Special purpose General purpose

7. Workers Limited skills Varied skills

8. Material handling Fixed path (conveyor) Variable path (forklift)

9. Goal Equalize work at Minimize material

each station handling cost

10. Advantage Efficiency Flexibility

retail service layout
Retail Service Layout
  • Goal--maximize net profit per square foot of floor space
  • Humanistic considerations
      • Ambient Conditions
      • Spatial Layout and Functionality
      • Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts
fixed position layout
Fixed Position Layout
  • What our our primary considerations for a fixed position layout?
group technology cellular layout
Group Technology: Cellular Layout
  • Dissimilar machines are grouped into work centers (cells) to process products with similar shapes and processing requirements
cellular layout example revised layout with three cells

Assembly

8

10

9

12

11

4

6

Cell1

Cell 3

Cell 2

7

2

1

3

5

Raw materials

A

C

B

Cellular Layout Example: Revised Layout with Three Cells