Human Origins in Africa Chapter 1: Sec. 1
Students will: • Describe key scientific findings about humanorigins. • List human achievements during the Stone Age. • Trace emergence of modern humans. • State discoveries about early humans.
Skills Objectives • Categorizing • Forming and Supporting Opinions • Making Inferences • Drawing Conclusions • Recognizing Effects • Comparing • Geography • Environment Interaction • Synthesizing
Focus and Motivate ❑ Interact with History ❑ Discuss MAIN IDEA: Fossil evidence shows that the earliest humans originated in Africa and spread across the globe. ❑ Discuss WHY IT MATTERS NOW : The study of early human remains and artifacts helps in understanding our place in human history.
Vocabulary and Homework Define the following Terms and Names • ARTIFACT • CULTURE • HOMINID • PALEOLITHIC AGE • NEOLITHIC AGE • TECHNOLOGY • HOMO SAPIENS PAGE 11 • QUESTIONS 3, 4 ,and 5
Scientists Search for Human Origins • What were the earliest Humans like? • Scientists use a variety of ways to research and learn more about how, when and where early humans developed. • Archaeologists are specially trained scientists who work like detectives to uncover the story of prehistoric people.
Since prehistoric human did not have written language • It is necessary to learn from existing evidence left behind such as bones and artifacts. • Artifacts are human made objects such as tools and • jewelry …. These items might hint at how people lived, • worked, dressed, and perhaps if they had a belief system
Components of Culture • Common Practices • What people eat, wear, jewelry, • What sports or games they play • Tools and Technology • Social Customs • Work
What is Culture? • Shared Understandings • Language • Symbols • Religion • Values • Arts, music • Political beliefs
Social Organization • Family • Class and caste structure • Relationships between individuals and community • Government • Economic systems • View of authority
Early Hominids • 1970’s in East Africa footprints found resembling those of humans • Found by Dr. Mary Leakey these • prints belong to a hominid • now know as australopithecines
The Discovery of Lucy 1974 Ethiopia Africa The oldest human remains found A female hominid Lucy was only 1.1 m (3 ft. 7 in) tall, weighed 29 kg (64 lbs.) and looked somewhat like a Common Chimpanzee
Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Age) • 2.5 million to 8000 BCE • Invention of tools, mastery of Fire, development of Language
Chapter 1 Sec. 2 Humans try to Control Nature • Objectives: Students will • • List technological and artistic achievements of the Paleolithic Age. • • Describe the Neolithic Revolution. • • Explain the growth of villages.
Skills • Outlining • Analyzing Primary Sources • Making Inferences • Skill builder: Map • Summarizing
FOCUS AND MOTIVATE Discuss MAIN IDEA: The development of agriculture caused an increase in population and the growth of a settled way of life. Discuss WHY IT MATTERS NOW: New methods for obtaining food and the development of technology laid the foundations for modern civilizations.
Vocabulary and Homework • Nomad • Hunter-gatherer • Neolithic revolution • Slash and burn farming • Domestication • Page 19 • Questions 3, 4, and 5
Neolithic Revolution • Making of tools
Domestication of Animals • Wolf Dog
Chapter 1 Sec. 3 Civilization Ur Objectives Students will • Explain how villages grew into cities. • List the characteristics of civilization. • Describe how the city of Ur exemplifies early civilizations
Skills Summarizing Drawing Conclusions Making Inferences Analyzing Causes Recognizing Effects
FOCUS AND MOTIVATE Discuss MAIN IDEA: Prosperous farming villages, food surpluses, and new technology led to the rise of civilizations. Discuss WHY IT MATTERS NOW: Contemporary civilizations share the same characteristics typical of ancient civilizations.
Vocabulary and Homework • Civilization • Specialization • Artisan Questions Page 23 • Institution Numbers 1, 3, 4, and 5 • Scribe • Cuneiform • Bronze Age • Barter • Ziggurat
Civilization Case Study “Ur” • How Civilization Develops • 1. Advanced Cities • 2. Specialized Workers • 3. Complex Institutions4. Record Keeping • 5. Advanced Technology
Advanced Cities • Village or City is not determined by its size of population but rather its design. • City center to foster trade and markets • Centers for religious observance • Site for retail and trade shops
Specialized Workers • Persons that do a particular job or task artisan Merchants Government officials Soldiers Metal workers Priests Scribes Farmers Weavers
Complex Institutions • Formal System of Government • Priests with official political and religious authority; Religious ceremony • Education to train those in a specific job such as scribes Need to learn established written language cuneiform
Improved Technology • Potters Wheel • Metal work---Bronze ( 88% copper 12% tin )
Quiz Hints • How did the surplus of food help develop specialization of work? • Why does a city such as Ur need a formal Government? • Why did record keeping become important in Ur?