Daily Questions #22

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Daily Questions #22. What would your “ideal” life look like? What will it take to get there? Name 1 way someone can save money around your house. Name another way someone can save money around your house. Name 1 way someone can save RESOURCES in their house.

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Daily Questions #22

What would your “ideal” life look like?

What will it take to get there?

Name 1 way someone can save money around your house.

Name another way someone can save money around your house.

Name 1 way someone can save RESOURCES in their house.

Why would conserving resources be important?

Here is a formula:

[(watts x hours) / 1000] x .14 = cost per day.

How much does running 1, 60 watt light bulb for 8 hours a day cost?

What would that light bulb cost me per year to operate?

Take out the half sheet from yesterday…

• If you don’t have it…
• Separate your paper (half sheet)
• 1. find 4-6 words that go together and tell me why.

Take out the half sheet from yesterday…

• If you don’t have it…
• Separate your paper (half sheet)
• 1. find 4-6 words that go together and tell me why.
• 2. Take ALL of the words and separate them into categories that make sense to you. Must have an explanation of WHY you placed them in those groups, like a title/theme.

Daily Questions #23

What does it mean to say “If you don’t have a goal, you will never reach it.”

What does it mean to say “The early bird gets the worm?”

Lets say you have 10 light bulbs in your house. They are all 60 watts. You use them 6 hours a day. How much does that cost you per year?

Lets say you have 10 light bulbs in your house. You replace them with CFL bulbs that use 14w. You use them 6 hours a day. How much does that cost you per year?

Lets say you have 10 light bulbs in your house. You replace them with LED bulbs that use only 8w. You use them 6 hours a day. How much does that cost you per year?

Formula! ([total watts x hours] / 1000) x \$.13 x days = COST

Earths Resources!

*Resources are LIMITED!

There are (2012) 7.5 BILLION people on the planet. In 2050 estimates reach 9.6 BILLION people.

So we could take EVERY SINGLE PERSON in North America AND South America and DOUBLE it, and even squeeze in ALL of South America Again.

*Renewable resources can be replenished over a short period of time (months, years, decades)

*NON-Renewable resources takes millions of years or does not renew at all!

Energy and Mineral Resources

Energy is all around us, it makes up everything…

• BUT, what IS energy?
• The law of conservation of energy says “Energy cannot be created or destroyed only changed in form”. So what does that mean?
• Define energy
• Define work

Energy Resources

Energy defined as the ability or capacity to do work.

Work is the transfer or transformation of energy from one thing (or place) to another by force.

What is our greatest source of energy?

How can you trace everything you have encountered today back to that source of energy?

- breakfast, lunch

- clothes

- homework

What are some examples of work that you have completed today?

Energy

YOU!

Energy provides for us transportation.

- cars, trains, boats, airplanes, bicycles etc…

Energy makes cakes for us in the oven and cools our drinks in the fridge

Energy plays our favorite songs on our IPODS

Energy lights our homes

It allows our bodies to grow and our minds to think.

Energy is the ability to do work and humans have learned to change energy from one form to another so that we can perform work easier and more comfortably.

90% of our energy in the USA comes from NON RENEWABLE fossil fuel resources.

Energy

Describe Fossil Fuels

• They are called fossil fuels because they come from the organic remains of prehistoric plants and animals. (fossils)
• Fossil fuels include coal, oil, and natural gas.
• We use fossil fuels mostly for electricity, then secondarily to heat our homes.
• How does burning coal make electricity?

Energy

Daily Questions #24
• Outside of your house you have 6 flood lights that come on at night. They are on for 4 hours a night and are 100 watts each. If the electric company charges you 0.14 cents per kWh, how much do these bulbs cost per year?
• Change those 100w light bulbs with LED bulbs that are only 23w. Calculate how much money you would save per YEAR.

Watts x hours / 1000 x 0.14 x days = cost

Quiz on this tomorrow…

We have ALL kinds of resources that keep us alive.

• Describe our fossil fuels
• COAL
• Formed by heat and pressure on organic material over millions of years.
• Powerplants use primarily coal to generate electricity.
• The world has enormous coal reserves.

Resources

We have ALL kinds of resources that keep us alive.

• Describe our fossil fuels
• Pros
• We have a lot of it
• Its easy to manipulate (use)
• It produces a lot of heat that we can use for power.
• Cons
• Releases tons of CO2
• High in sulfur (air pollution)
• Acid rain
• Dangerous to mine

Resources

We have ALL kinds of resources that keep us alive.

• Describe our fossil fuels
• Petroleum (oil) and Natural Gas
• Come from plant and animal remains buried under water (ancient seas)
• Transforms into liquid and gasesous hydrocarbons that we call petroleum and natural gas.
• It gets “trapped” then we “suck” it out.

Resources

Describe our fossil fuels

• Pros
• Has a huge amount of energy
• Helps economy (buying and selling oil)
• Cons
• Releases tons of CO2
• Dangerous to mine
• Oil spills etc…
• There are limited supplies
• b/c its worth money, we fight over it.

Resources

Daily Questions #25
• An LED bulb lasts about 50,000 hours. If you have an 8w LED bulb, how much will it cost over its whole lifespan if you are being charged \$.20 per kWh.
• A CFL bulb lasts about 10,000 hours. How many bulbs would you need to equal that one LED bulb?
• A comparable CFL bulb is 14watts. How much would it cost over 50,000 hours?
• An incandescent bulb lasts about 6 months or 2,000 hours. How many bulbs would you need to buy in order equal the 50,000 hours of the LED bulb?
• How much would that 60 watt bulb cost you over the same 50,000 hours as the LED bulb?

Watts x hours / 1000 x \$.20 x days = cost

Quiz next…

Lets put it into perspective…

Energy is measured in units called JOULES. Named after James Prescott Joule. It is the energy exerted (work) by one NEWTON needed to move an object a distance of 1 meter. 1J=1Nm

Just like DOLLARS represents value to money.

Watts = a unit of power = joules per second. Its how we analyze the “power” used. The more watts, the more power, the brighter the light, for example.

So a 60 watt light bulb, uses 60 joules per second. So if you have a light on for 1 minute (sixty seconds) you have used 3600 joules of energy. A 20w light bulb uses less joules/s thus less power, thus costs less to operate.

Energy (handout)

Calories are another unit of energy. The food calorie measures the amount of potential energy carried by the molecules in the food you eat.

Specifically 1 calorie is the amount of energy it takes to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree.

1 joule = 0.239005736 calories

A double-double with onion is 670 calories (burger

only) French fries = 400 calories.

Coke = 198 calories

Double double meal = 1268 calories or appr. 5308 joules of energy. About HALF of the total energy most people need per DAY!

So you could power (1) 60w light bulb for 1.5 minutes to equal the same amount of energy as eating a double double meal.

What does that tell you about the energy you use in your house?

Energy

Energy is all around us, it makes up everything…

• BUT, what IS energy?
• The law of conservation of energy says “Energy cannot be created or destroyed only changed in form”. So what does that mean?
• Describe the 3 types
• of light bulbs and how
• they use energy/cost.
• What is the formula to
• calculate how much
• money lights cost to run.

Energy

So Check it…

The energy you use in your house is measured in kWh (kilo-watt / hours) or 1000 watts per hour. That is how you get charged, per hour.

1 kWh is about 3,600,000 joules and costs you about 0.12 - 0.18 cents depending on what time of the day you use the energy and how much you use. Peak demand (between 12-5pm) is more expensive because more people are using at that time so they charge you more.

Energy

Energy

So Check it…

Running a 60 watt light bulb for 4 days (about 16 hours, about 4 hours/day average) would cost you between 0.12 and 0.18 cents. For ONE light bulb.

Replacing that light bulb with a 13 watt CFL (60w equivalent) (sno-cone light), for the same .12-.18 cents, you could run that light for about 19 days!

Replacing that 60 watt light bulb for a 8 watt LED light bulb will allow you to run that light for about 36 days for .12 - .18 cents!.

This does NOT calculate the amount of heat put off by each bulb.

Regular bulb = 350 degrees (OUCH)

CFL = 80-85 degrees (better)

LED = 30-40 degrees (cool as ice )

Energy

The first incandescent light bulb was created in 1800 by Humphrey Davy. He used carbon attached to a battery to produce an “arc” which gave off light. It only lasted for a minute or less but the idea had been born. The light bulb had been improved and eventually patented via Thomas Edison. He failed around 1400 times to find a proper filament before he found a suitable material.

The Incandescent light bulb uses electricity

passed through a tungsten filament which

then heats up (to temperatures above 2,000

degrees) in an oxygenless atmosphere.

They are only 5% efficient viz. 95% of

the energy is lost as heat.

Governments have passed measures to prohibit the sale of incandescent light bulbs. Brazil and Venezuela started in 2005, other nations planning phase-outs: Australia, Ireland and Switzerland in 2009; Argentina, Italy, Russia and the United Kingdom by 2011; Canada in 2012; and the U.S. between 2012 and 2014

Incandescent light bulbs

Daily Questions # 26
• What are fossil fuels?
• Define work.
• Define energy.
• Who made the first incandescent lightbulb?
• What are the 3 types of bulbs?
• What are the 3 types of fossil fuels?
• What fossil fuel do we use most for electricity production?
• Put the 5 alternative energy sources in the order that YOU think is the best to worst to use.

Flashing….lights, lights lights….

Answer these questions on the BACK of the packet.

• What is the most common light bulb found in your house?
• What is the most common WATTAGE of light bulb found in your house?
• How many total light bulbs are inside your house?
• Calculate the TOTAL watts of all the bulbs added up in your house.
• If all the bulbs in your house were used on average of 6 hours a day for a year, how much money are you spending in JUST light bulb energy? Use the formula (w)(h)/1000 x \$0.13 x 365 to figure the cost. (show your work/formula)
• What is the average wattage of the bulbs in your house? (take the total watts from #4 then divide that by the total number of bulbs from # 3. (show your work/formula)
• If you replaced all of your regular incandescent bulbs with LED bulbs (they cost \$10 each at costco) how much would it cost you? (show your work/formula)
• How much money would you SAVE every year in energy cost, if you replaced all of your regular bulbs with the LED bulbs from problem 7? LED bulbs are about 8 watts for a 60 watt bulb. (hint: add up your bulb wattages again, this time replacing any incandescent bulb with the LED bulb at 8 watts (leave the CFL’s alone) THEN put it into the formula and subtract your total from Q#4’s answer to get your savings per year. (show your work/formula)

The CFL was first invented in 1890 by Peter Cooper Hewitt, but improved with the spiral design in 1976 by Edmund Germer. There are different types of CFL’s. Tubular and spiral. The spiral is slightly less efficient because of the phosphorous build up near the base.

Compact Fluorescent Lamp CFL

CFL’s give off the same amount of visible light while consuming less power (watts) and last more than 10x longer than incandescent bulbs. CFL’s are up to 75% efficient while only giving off about 85 degrees of heat. CFL’s contain mercury (Hg) which make them toxic if broken and require recycling.

All Fluorescent lamps have a ballast. A ballast controls the flow of electricity to emit ultra violet light, that UV light reacts with the phosphorus (white stuff) to emit light.

The LED, or light emitting diode is a PNP transistor that gives off a color of light if electricity flows in a single direction. The first LED technology was used in the 1960’s. Depending the elements used, a different color LED can be achieved. Gallium, Arsenic, and Phosphorus or GaAsP or GAP were combined to create a red LED.

Light Emitting Diode LED

LED’s are used in many applications, recently to replace regular light bulbs.

LED’s are up to 95% efficient and only get to be about 45 degrees. Cool to the touch.

Comparing Costs The best way to compare the three types of bulbs is to calculate their costs over the same amount of time. Since an LED bulb lasts 50,000 hours (15 years) of usage, that will be our measuring guide.

Standard incandescent bulbs The CFL used here has a lifetime of 1,300 hours, so we would need 23 bulbs over the period of this study. I was able to purchase a single incandescent of this type for \$0.34, so our total cost for bulbs over 30,000 hours would be \$7.82.

As it uses 60 watts, over a period of 30,000 hours, an incandescent bulb would use 1,800,000 watt hours, or 1,800 kilowatt hours. At the current approximate price of \$0.10 per kilowatt hour, you would have to pay \$180.00 to run an incandescent bulb over this period.

Thus, the total cost of a 60 watt incandescent bulb over a 30,000 hour lifespan is \$187.82. (energy + cost of light bulb(s))

So what are the drawbacks of using incandescent lights?

Energy

Comparing CostsThe best way to compare the three types of bulbs is to calculate their costs over the same amount of time. Since an LED bulb lasts 50,000 hours (15 years) of usage, that will be our measuring guide..

CFL bulbs The CFL used here has a lifetime of 8,000 hours, so we would need 3.75 bulbs over the period of this study. I was able to purchase a single CFL for \$1.24, so our total cost for bulbs over 30,000 hours would be \$4.65.

As it uses 13 watts, over a period of 30,000 hours, a CFL bulb would use 390,000 watt hours, or 390 kilowatt hours. At the current approximate price of \$0.10 per kilowatt hour, you would have to pay \$39.00 to run a CFL bulb over this period.

Thus, the total cost of a CFL bulb over a 30,000 hour lifespan is \$43.65. (energy + cost of light bulb(s))

So what are the drawbacks of using CFL lights?

Energy

Comparing CostsThe best way to compare the three types of bulbs is to calculate their costs over 30,000 hours (13.7 years) of usage - the lifespan of a single LED bulb.

LED bulbs The LED bulb used here has a lifetime of 30,000-100,000 hours, so we would need only one bulb over the period of this study. Unfortunately, that single bulb has a cost of \$69.00.

As it uses 7.5 watts, over a period of 10,000 hours, an LED bulb would use 245,000 watt hours, or 245 kilowatt hours. At the current approximate price of \$0.10 per kilowatt hour, you would have to pay \$24.50 to run an LED bulb over this period.

Thus, the total cost of an LED bulb over a 30,000 hour lifespan is \$93.50 (energy + cost of light bulb(s))

So what are the drawbacks of using LED lights?

Energy

Nuts and bolts

50,000 hours is about 15 years if you used the light bulb for about 6 hours AVERAGE per day.

Incandescent (60w) = \$187.82 (divided by 13 years) = \$14/year

CFL (14) = \$43.65 (divided by 13) = \$ 3.35/year

LED (7) = \$93.50 (divided by 13) = \$ 7.19/year

So times this number by the total number of lights you have in your house.

Homework = Go home, count the light bulbs inside and outside of your house and categorize them as either regular, CFL or LED lights, and the wattage of each light. Lets see how much your parents spend per year on light bulbs alone. 

Energy

Water is Earth’s most precious resource.
• Open up your notebook to an open “left hand” page in our current energy section and label it “Water Story”
• Write the questions down (from the next slide) leaving a space for each answer based on the movie.
• HOMEWORK
• Chapter 4.3 due TUESDAY (tomorrow)
• Words – point source pollution, nonpoint source pollution, runoff, global warming.
• Questions – 1-6
• Quiz on energy packet and notes - WEDNESDAY

The California Water Story

Water is California’s most precious resource. Answer the following questions based on the video you will watch.

When did the Europeans come to California?

How long was the irrigation ditch built by the spanish missionaries in the early 1700’s?

What major river do we get our water from?

Describe what ground water overdraft is.

Where do most people live in California?

Where is most of the water produced in CA?

What was the plan to capture water for year round use called?

How many people lived in CA in 1960?

How long is the California Water Project aquaduct?

Water for 2/3 of California’s people is sent through which Delta?

What are 4 things you could do at home to conserve water?

Daily Question #27
• Water covers 71% of the Earth’s ______.
• What type of water is the most abundant on Earth?
• Water pollution that comes from a known and specific location is known as _______________.
• Less than __% of water on the Earth is usable fresh water.
• Water pollution that does NOT have a specific point of origin is called _______________.
• Define run off.
• Besides the oxygen cycle, the _______ cycle is also important to life on earth.
• Carbon Dioxide, methane, and water vapor are also known as ___________ gases.
• These gases absorb the _____ that the Earth gives off, keeping our planet warm enough to sustain life.
• True or false, greenhouse gases are bad.
• Get out 1 sheet of paper, tear it in half hamburger style and share the other half with someone, label it. 4.3 Quiz.
• Get out 1 sheet of paper, tear it in half hamburger style and share the other half with someone, label it. 4.3 Quiz.
• Water covers ____% of the Earth’s surface.
• What type of water is the most abundant on Earth?
• Define point source pollution.
• Less than 1% of water on the Earth is _____ (1) ______ (1) water.
• Water pollution that does NOT have a specific point of origin is called _______________.
• When water runs over the surface of the Earth rather than seeping into the ground is known as ____________.
• Besides the oxygen cycle, the _______ cycle is also important to life on earth.
• __________, methane, and ______ vapor are also known as greenhouse gases.
• These gases absorb the _____ that the Earth gives off, keeping our planet warm enough to _______ ______.
• True or false, greenhouse gases are bad.

Renewable Resources are resources that can…be renewed!

• Non-renewable resources are resources that once used, will no longer be available, like fossil fuels (gasoline, oil, coal etc…)
• Why is it important for us to focus on and understand Renewable Resources?
• What is Earth’s Energy budget?
• What are the different types of
• Renewable resources.
• How do those resources work?

Renewable Resources (Energy)

Solar Power!
• Solar power is the most attainable renewable energy resource. Have you seen solar panels on houses?
• How do they work?
Solar Power!
• The sun emits all kinds of waves and particles. Photons are particles from sunlight that act like “hammers”.
• Photons “knock” off electrons from the silicon bond of the panels. Those lose electrons (-) flow towards the P-type silicon (+), through wires to the “load”.
• Then the unused electrons (-) travel back to the other silicon and stick ready to be knocked off again.
Solar Power!
• You have to have SUN to have Solar Power. STRONG sunlight is the key so some areas of the world would not be able to utilize sun power.
• Solar panels are large and expensive and have to be positioned correctly to work their best.
Geothermal Power?
• Geo = earth, thermal = heat so literally it is earth heat power.
• The “heat” comes from magma under the surface. It heats ground water (or water pumped in) and turns it to steam
• The steam turns a turbine which turns a generator to make electricity.
• The water is cooled in a condensor (like your A/C) then pumped back in the ground to heat up.
Geothermal Power!
• It can only be achieved where ground water is close to magma, close to the surface. Only in certain parts of the world.
• Does not produce a lot of power at once.
Wind Power!
• Wind turns a giant blade that in turn turns a generator surrounded by copper wire and a magnet.
• As the motor moves it generates electricity.
• These Turbines are HUGE.
• Where are Turbines?
Wind Power!