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Ada in the Avionics Industry. George Romanski. romanski@verocel.com. Overview. Evolution of the Ada Industry Personal Observations and Experiences Certification Projects Certification Guidance Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) Ada on IMA . 1980 – Ada Compiler - Germany.

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ada in the avionics industry

Ada in the Avionics Industry

George Romanski

romanski@verocel.com

overview
Overview
  • Evolution of the Ada Industry
    • Personal Observations and Experiences
  • Certification Projects
  • Certification Guidance
  • Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA)
  • Ada on IMA

SigAda-2005

1980 ada compiler germany
1980 – Ada Compiler - Germany
  • Front-End – Karlsruhe University
  • Host – Siemens (IMB 370 clone)
  • Target – Siemens process control computer

Project included:

Compiler ‘middle-end’

Back-end

Code generator

Run-time system

SigAda-2005

1980 ada compiler germany4
1980 – Ada Compiler - Germany
  • Front-End – Karlsruhe University
  • Host – Siemens (IMB 370 clone)
  • Target – Siemens process control computer

Project included:

Compiler ‘middle-end’

Back-end

Code generator

Run-time system

Did not meet expectations !

But learned from the experience !

SigAda-2005

1983 mchaps project
1983 – MCHAPS Project
  • Ada Compiler and support environment
  • Well engineered design/specifications (lots of paper)
  • Spent lots of money

SigAda-2005

1983 mchaps project6
1983 – MCHAPS Project
  • Ada Compiler and support environment
  • Well engineered design/specifications (lots of paper)
  • Spent lots of money

Did not meet expectations !

But learned from the experience !

SigAda-2005

1984 sd ada
1984 – SD-Ada
  • Systems Designers /Systeam (Karlsruhe)
  • Host - VAX
  • Target – 68K, 1750A

Bootstrap 24 hrs on VAX 785

(Recompile the compiler)

SigAda-2005

1984 sd ada8
1984 – SD-Ada
  • Systems Designers /Systeam (Karlsruhe)
  • Host - VAX
  • Target – M68K, 1750A

Bootstrap 24 hrs on VAX 785

(Recompile the compiler)

M68K moderately successful !

VAX compiler, 1750A compiler – did not meet $ expectations

SigAda-2005

1986 xd ada compiler
1986 - XD-Ada Compiler
  • Systems Designers / DEC
  • Host - VAX
  • Target
    • M68K
    • 1750A

Commercial and Military

Avionic systems

Mostly Military and space

based systems

Front/Middle-end Vax-Ada

SigAda-2005

1986 xd ada compiler10
1986 - XD-Ada Compiler
  • Systems Designers / DEC
  • Host - VAX
  • Target
    • M68K
    • 1750A

Commercial and Military

Avionic systems

Mostly Military and space

based systems

Front/Middle-end Vax-Ada

M68K Lots of $$’

1750A compiler – moderately successful

SigAda-2005

1990 alsys
1990 Alsys
  • Host – Many
    • PC with 4-MByte memory board
  • Targets – Many (including)
    • Intel
    • 68K

Used on BOEING 777

C-SMART

(Certifiable Small Ada Run-Time)

SigAda-2005

1990 alsys12
1990 Alsys
  • Host – Many
    • PC with 4-MByte memory board
  • Targets – Many (including)
    • Intel
    • 68K

Used on BOEING 777

C-SMART

(Certifiable Small Ada Run-Time)

COTS Certification Package

using DO-178B

SigAda-2005

1991 1994 boeing 777
1991 – 1994 Boeing 777
  • Most systems written in Ada
  • Many proprietary subsets
  • Mostly certified by users
    • (no RTS or minimal RTS)
  • C-SMART
    • Certification package was 35 pounds per 1000 LOC.

Ada – great success story !!

SigAda-2005

1998 ada 95 ravenscar
1998 – Ada’95 + Ravenscar
  • Aonix
    • C-SMART (Ada 95)
    • Raven

Certification package

SigAda-2005

1998 ada 95 ravenscar15
1998 – Ada’95 + Ravenscar
  • Aonix
    • C-SMART (Ada 95)
    • Raven

Certification package

Used on several avionics projects

SigAda-2005

verocel 1999 to present
Verocel – 1999 – to present
  • ‘C’ based certifications
  • Ada Based certifications
  • PLM Based certifications
  • Targets
    • PIC micro-controller
    • 68K
    • Cold-Fire
    • PPC

400 bytes RAM

½ GByte RAM

(larger than Machines

for early Host compilers)

SigAda-2005

verocel 1999 to present17
Verocel – 1999 – to present
  • ‘C’ based certifications
  • Ada Based certifications
  • PLM Based certifications
  • Targets
    • PIC micro-controller
    • 68K
    • Cold-Fire
    • PPC

400 bytes RAM

½ GByte RAM

(larger than Machines

for early Host compilers)

40% certification work done in Ada (measured by LOC)

All based on DO-178B

SigAda-2005

certification guidance
Certification Guidance
  • Guidance used for Software
    • DO-178B Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification
    • DO-248B Annual Report for Clarification of DO-178B
    • ARINC-653 Avionics Application Standard Interface
    • DO-xxx Integrated Modular Avionics Development Guidance and Certification Considerations (SC-200 working group)

DO-178B

IMA

SigAda-2005

continued evolution of do 178b guidance
Continued Evolution of DO-178B Guidance

DO-178B (1991)

DO-248B

DO-278

Issue

Papers

CAST

Papers

SC-205

Annexes

DO-178C

+

Model Based Development

Object Oriented Programming

Formal Methods

(2008?)

SigAda-2005

ima guidance
IMA Guidance
  • ARINC-653
    • Published in 1997
    • Supplement 1 published 2003
    • Supplement 2 ‘few months away’
  • SC-200
    • Approved by Plenary committee Aug 2005
    • Submitted for final editorial review and approval
    • To be published as DO-xxx (next available number)

SigAda-2005

use of ima
Use Of IMA
  • Many new projects are based on IMA architectures.
    • Airbus 380
    • Boeing 787
    • 767 Tanker
    • C-130 AMP
    • Airbus 400M
    • X45, X47 (Unmanned aircraft)

SigAda-2005

use of ima22
Use Of IMA
  • Many new projects are based on IMA architectures.
    • Airbus 380
    • Boeing 787
    • 767 Tanker
    • C-130 AMP
    • Airbus 400M
    • X45, X47 (Unmanned aircraft)

All of these IMA systems based on ARINC-653

SigAda-2005

line replaceable units databus
Line Replaceable Units - Databus

Effectors

Sensors

Databus

LRU-B

LRU-A

LRU-C

Most flying planes

Use this architecture

SigAda-2005

line replaceable units switch
Line Replaceable Units - Switch

Effectors

Sensors

Databus

LRU-B

LRU-A

LRU-C

Switch

Switch is a high-bandwidth

Communication system

SigAda-2005

line replaceable module
Line Replaceable Module

Effectors

Sensors

DC- Data Concentrators

DC

DC

DC

Switch

LRM

A

B

C

LRM houses

applications A,B and C

SigAda-2005

partitioning applications on lrm
Partitioning Applications on LRM

App. 1

Ada

App. 2

C++

App. 3

C

Partition

Operating

System

APEX

APEX

APEX

POS

POS

POS

Module

Operating

System

MOS

Config.

Table

SigAda-2005

arinc 653 organization on lrm
ARINC-653 Organization – on LRM

Application

Partition 2

System

Partition 2

Applications

Software

Layer

Application

Partition 1

System

Partition 1

Apex Interface

Core

Software

Layer

O/S

Kernel

System Specific

Functions

Hardware

SigAda-2005

ima model for an ada application
IMA Model for an Ada application

Virtual Target

Ada Application

Virtual

Address

Space

ARTE

Health

Management

System

POS

Communication through virtual Ports only

SigAda-2005

ada objects created not declared
Ada Objects Created not Declared

Ada Program

CREATE_PROCESS (Ada_Procedure, )

No Ada

Tasks

CREATE_SEMAPHORE

CREATE_EVENT

Process

Object

POS

Event

Object

Semaphore

Object

SigAda-2005

ada exceptions
Ada Exceptions

Divide by zero

Exception Handler

ARTE

POS

Partition HM

Module HM

MOS

System HM

H/W exception handler

SigAda-2005

ada on arinc 653
Ada on ARINC 653
  • ARINC 653 is a standard that abstracts the operating system services from the application
  • Ada fits in but gives up scheduling operations
  • All support libraries must be certified

Ada is Highly suitable for Avionics Applications

on ARINC-653 platforms

SigAda-2005

where does ada fit in
Where does Ada fit in?

In with a good chance!

The main objection to Ada is:

SigAda-2005

where does ada fit in33
Where does Ada fit in?

In with a good chance!

The main objection to Ada is:

Lack of Ada Programmers!

SigAda-2005

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