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Internal Tidal Currents in the Gaoping Submarine Canyon. I-Huan Lee National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium,Pingtung, Taiwan, 944-50, R.O.C. ihlee@nmmba.gov.tw Yu-Huai Wang* Institute of Applied Marine Physics and Underwater Technology,National Sun Yat-sen University

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Internal Tidal Currents in the Gaoping Submarine Canyon


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internal tidal currents in the gaoping submarine canyon

Internal Tidal Currents in the Gaoping Submarine Canyon

I-Huan Lee

National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium,Pingtung, Taiwan, 944-50, R.O.C.

ihlee@nmmba.gov.tw

Yu-Huai Wang*

Institute of Applied Marine Physics and Underwater Technology,National Sun Yat-sen University

Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 804-24, R.O.C.

yhwang@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

James T. Liu

Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry,National Sun Yat-sen University

Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 804-24, R.O.C.

james@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

Wen-Ssn Chuang

Institute of Oceanography,National Taiwan University,Taipei, Taiwan, 106-17, R.O.C.

chuang@ntu.edu.tw

Jingping Xu

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

slide2

Time series of bottom-mounted ADCP measurements

2006,Aug. 27 ~ Aug. 28

btADCP (87 m ~ 247 m)

CTD (0m ~ 250 m), water depth of 270 m

u, v (1 min / 8m)

T,S, p (1 hour / 1 m)

Time series of two current meters on a taut-line mooring

2000,Jun.28 ~Jul.21

2 RCM8 current meters (200 m & 270m, water depth of 300m)

u, v, T, p per hour

Time series of two ADCPs on a taut-line mooring

2004,Dec. 13 ~ Dec. 14, sbADCP (8 m ~ 280m)

btADCP (100 m ~ 320m) sbADCP (0 m ~ 250m)

CTD (0 m ~ 420 m) , water depth of 440 m

u, v of sbADCP (30 sec / 8 m)

u, v of btADCP (5 min / 2 m)

T,S, p (1 hour / 1m)

29-hour anchor station for hourly CTD and shipboard ADCP observations

2004,Feb.26 ~ Feb. 27

sbADCP (8 m ~ 320 m)

CTD (0 m ~ 350m) , water depth of 410 m

u, v( 2 min / 8 m)

T, S, p (1 hour / 1 m)

Time series of one current meter on a taut-line mooring

2004 May 25 - June 26, described in Lee and Liu (2006)

2000~2006

5 major mooring or anchor observations of physical oceanography

2~3 km

~20 km

slide3

EXP1 : Time series of two current meters on a taut-line mooring

270 m

200 m

Fluctuation

> 5 C

v- direction reflect the along-channel motion

the positive

v is up-canyon

the flows increase with depth

slide4

EXP1 : power spectra of v and T (at 200 m) and coherence and phase between v, T, sea level

Both the velocity and temperature fluctuations are dominated by the semi-diurnal tides; though, the diurnal and higher-harmonics also are significant.

The sea level fluctuations, on the other hand, have comparable diurnal and semi-diurnal constituents.

Harmonic analysis indicates that the major tidal constituents are S2(0.14m), M2(0.28m), K1(0.28m), and O1(0.21m). These four major constituents account for 90% of the observed variance

V

T

slide5

EXP1 : power spectra of v and T (at 200 m) and coherence and phase between v, T sea level

The velocity, temperature and sea level fluctuations are highly coherent at the semidiurnal period

The phase between velocity and temperature is 110o, that is, temperature minimum leads slack water (after flood) by about an hour. The nearly 90o phase relationship is characteristic of a standing wave.

The phase between velocity (temperature) and sea level is 140o (30o), or low water leads temperature minimum by about an hour.

V

T

slide6

EXP2 : 29-hour anchor station for hourly CTD and shipboard ADCP observations

120m

tidal ellipses

The M2 is much larger than K1, which agrees with the spectral results in Exp1. The K1 decreases gradually with depth. The M2, on the other hand, has a distinct baroclinic (first-mode) structure with zero crossing at about 120 m. The M2 velocity increases towards the bottom, which also agrees with the findings in Exp1.

The velocity and density are about 90 degree out of phase, that is, the density maximum occurs at the end of the flood. The approximate 1 hour (30o) offset between density maximum (temperature minimum) and slack water (after flood) agrees well with Exp1. The low water leading density maximum by about 3 hour.

slide7

EXP4 : Time series of two ADCPs on a taut-line mooring

The M2 tidal ellipses are similar at comparable depths to those of Exp2; the zero crossing is slightly shallower.

The along-channel velocity from the ADCP data with corresponding semidiurnal component of the sea level shows the rising sea level corresponds to the flood current.

slide8

EXP4 : Time series of two ADCPs on a taut-line mooring

18-hour combined ADCP velocity vectors and density contours from the anchor station shows that the density maximum occurs at the end of the flood and the density minimum at the end of the ebb. The relation between velocity and sea level also agrees with Exp2.

slide9

EXP5 : Time series of bottom-mounted ADCP measurements

23-hour bottom mounted ADCP observations. The M2 is almost uniform, indicating that the measurement is completely in the lower layer

The density maximum occurs at the end of the flood and the density minimum at the end of the ebb. These results are similar to all the other experiments. The relation between sea level and density also agrees with other anchor station data.

summery

Temperature

Sea level

Velocity

Summery

Four field experiments in Gaoping submarine canyon were carried out from 2000 to 2006. Despite the differences in location and time, the results indicate a consistent picture of the semidiurnal internal tides that can be described approximately as a first-mode standing wave with velocity and density interface about 90o out-of-phase.