Econ 299 Quantitative Methods in Economics. Economic Data Calculus and Economics Basics of Economic Models Advanced Calculus and Economics Statistics and Economics Econometric Introduction. Lorne Priemaza, M.A. Lorne.email@example.com.
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Econ 299Quantitative Methods in Economics Economic Data Calculus and Economics Basics of Economic Models Advanced Calculus and Economics Statistics and Economics Econometric Introduction Lorne Priemaza, M.A. Lorne.firstname.lastname@example.org
1. Data Description, Presentation, and Manipulation 1.1 Data Types and Presentations 1.2 Real and Nominal Variables 1.3 Price Indexes 1.4 Growth Rates and Inflation 1.5 Interest Rates 1.6 Aggregating Data: Stocks and Flows 1.7 Seasonal Adjustment Appendix 1.1 Exponentials and Logarithms
Why do economists need data? • 1) Describe Economy • Current and past data, as well as increases and decreases • This information can influence decisions ie: GDP, interest rate, unemployment, price, debt, etc. • 2) Test Theory • Data is needed to test a hypothesis that one aspect of the economy impacts another ie: Smokers and the cost to healthcare ie: Married couples and health
1 Data Types Data is essential for economists. Data can be categorized by: 1) How it is collected: • time series data • cross-sectional data • panel data 2) How it is measured: • nominal data • real data
Time Series Data -Collects data on one economic agent (city/person/firm/etc.) over time -Frequency can vary (yearly/monthly/ quarterly/weekly/daily/etc.) -ie: Canadian GDP, GMC stock value, your height, U of A tuition, world population
Final Fantasy Quality - Time Series Data Source: www.thefinalfantasy.com Source: the truth Time Series: One Agent Many Time Periods
Cross Sectional Data -Collects data on multiple economic agents (locations/persons/firms/etc) at one time -Taken at one specific point in time (September report, January report, etc.) -ie: current stock portfolio, hockey player stats, provincial GDP comparison, last year’s grades
Timothy A. Student’s Weekly Time Spent Studying for Midterms - Cross Sectional Data Cross Sectional: Many Agents One Time Period
Panel Data -Combination of Time Series and Cross-sectional Data -Many economic agents -Many time periods -More difficult to use -Often required due to data restrictions -also referred to as pooled data
1.1 Data Types • Exercise: What kind of data is: 1) Election Predictions 10 days before an election? 2) MacLean’s University Rankings? 3) Yearly bank account summary? 4) University Transcript after your 4th year?
1.2 Real and Nominal Variables • 1. Nominal variables • Measured using current prices • Provides a measure of current value Ie: a movie today costs $12.
1.2 Real and Nominal Variables • 2. Real variables • Measured using base year prices • Provides a measure of quantity (removing the effects of price change over time) Ie: a movie today costs $4.00 in 1970 dollars
A Movie in 1970 In 1970, a movie cost $0.50 BUT $0.50 then was a lot more than $0.50 now. Nominal Comparison: Movie prices have increased by a factor of 24 ($0.50 -> $12) Real Comparison: Movie prices have increased by a factor of 8 ($0.50 -> $4)
GDP example • Gross Domestic Product -Monetary value of all goods and services produced in an economy How do nominal and real GDP differ?
Nominal GDP -Current monetary value of all goods produced: ∑ quantities X prices -changes when prices change -changes when quantities change
The Problem with Nominal GDP Assume: prices quadruple (x4) production is cut in half (x 1/2) Nominal GDP (year 1) = 1 X 1 = 1 Nominal GDP (year 2) = 0.5 X 4 = 2 -although production has been devastated, GDP reflects extreme growth
Real GDP -Base year value of all goods currently produced: ∑ quantities X prices baseyear -doesn’t change when prices change -changes when quantities change
The Solution of Real GDP Assume: prices quadruple (x4) production is cut in half (x 1/2) Real GDP (year 1) = 1 X 1 = 1 Real GDP (year 2) = 0.5 X 1 = 0.5 -real GDP accurately reflects the economy
Price Indexes (Indices) -Used to convert between real and nominal terms -different indexes for different variables or groups of variables Ie: GDP Deflator 2002 = 100 (base year) 2010 = 125 (World Bank) The “price” of GDP has risen 25% between 2002 and 2010
1.3 How to Calculate Price Indexes -simple price index -weighted sum of individual prices of a good or group of goods Price index = ∑price X weight
Example #1 John is constructing a price index to reflect his entertainment spending John values two activities equally: seeing movies and eating hot dogs The prices of movies and hot dogs have moved as follows:
Example #1 To construct a price index, simply sum the products of the prices and weights Price index = ∑price X weight Exercise: If John valued hot dogs three times as much as movies, what would the price indexes become?
1.3.1 Normalizing Price Indexes -price indexes themselves are meaningless “The price of GDP was 78.9 this year” -price indexes help us: • Compare between years • Convert between real and nominal -to compare more easily, we normalize to make the index equal 100 in the base year
Normalizing the price index: = 100 in base year For example, if GDP was 310 in 1982, dividing every year’s GDP by 310 and then multiplying by 100 normalizes GDP to be 100 in 1982.
Example #1a - Normalized Take 2000 as the base year: Does the base year chosen affect the outcome?
Example #1b - Normalized Take 2002 as the base year: Note:Raw and normalized PI’s WORK the same, normalized PI’s are just easier to visually interpret
Example #2 – Tuition If instead of using inflation for our tuition deflator, we use the education deflator, we can first normalize it to 1999/2000: *Cansim series V735564, January Data
188.8.131.52 Changing Base Years -base years can be changed using the same formula learned earlier -in the formula, always use the price indexes from the SAME SERIES (same base year)
1.3.2 Common Price Indexes -Up until this point, price index weights have been arbitrary -Arbitrary weights leads to bias, difficulty in recreating data, and difficulty in interpreting and comparing data -Two common universal price indexes are the Paasche and the Laspeyres Price Indexes
1.3.2 Laspeyres Price Index -uses base year quantities as weights -still = 100 in base year LPIt = ∑ pricest X quantitiesbase year ---------------------------------- X 100 ∑ pricesbase year X quantitiesbase year -tracks cost of buying a fixed (base year) basket of goods (ie: CPI)
1.3.2 Paasche Price Index -uses current year quantities as weights -still = 100 in base year PPIt = ∑ pricest X quantitiest ---------------------------------- X 100 ∑ pricesbase year X quantitiest -compares cost of current basket now to cost of current basket in base year
Choosing Paasche or Laspeyres Current year weights = Paasche Base year weights = Laspeyres
2 Price Index Calculation Methods • Using individual prices and quantities -Same as before 2) Using basket costs PaQb Price of basket b in year a P2012Q1997 Price in 2012 of what was bought in 1997
Method 2 Example Every year, Lillian Pigeau likes to travel. The first year, she went to Maraket, the second year to Ohm, and the third year to Moose Jaw. The costs of those trips are as follows: