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Product Specifications. Product Specifications. Perform Benchmarking Establish target specifications Finalize specifications. Benchmarking. The continuous process of measuring products against the competitors or those recognized as industry leaders. Benchmarking Approach.

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product specifications
Product Specifications

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

product specifications1
Product Specifications
  • Perform Benchmarking
  • Establish target specifications
  • Finalize specifications

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

benchmarking
Benchmarking

The continuous process of measuring products against the competitors or those recognized as industry leaders.

Benchmarking Approach

Step 1: Make a list of design issues

example – coffee mill

Identify design issues: price, grind time, fineness of grind, noise level, size

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

benchmarking1
Benchmarking

Step 2: Make a list of competitive products

example: coffee mill

Krups, Braun, Cuisinar, Bosch, ….

Step 3: Conduct an information search

Gather as much information about the product as possible (functions they perform and targeted market)

Sources: Internet, Trade Mag., Consumer Reports Mag., Thomas Register of Comp., Moody’s Industry Review, National Bureau of Standards, Patents.

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

benchmarking2
Benchmarking

Comparison of coffee mills – Consumer Report Magazine

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

benchmarking3
Benchmarking

Step 4: Teardown the competitor’s product

select competitive products that are leaders on some aspect, disassemble and make a list of all components.

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

benchmarking4
Benchmarking

Teardown method – Subtract and Operate Procedure (SOP)

  • Disassemble (subtract) one component of the assembly or subassembly
  • Operate the product, if possible, through its full range.
  • Analyze and document the effect.

SOP determines the functionality and/or redundancies in an assembly.

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

benchmarking5
Benchmarking

Step 5: Compare competitive products

Summarize the comparison by component function and /or by customer needs importance.

Step 6: Establish best-in-class competitor

For each function, determine the highest performance solution. Also, determine the least expensive solution.

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

benchmarking6
Benchmarking

Step 7: Manufacturing and Assemblycost Analysis. Coffee mill example

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

comments on benchmarking
Comments on Benchmarking
  • Generally speaking, benchmarking can be effective for understanding the market.
  • It can identify key innovations and technologies.
  • It will not uncover new innovations being developed by competition., provides lagging information.
  • Do not benchmark all competitive products, stay away from loser products.
  • If a company is a clear market leader, benchmarking may not offer much insight.
  • Benchmarking requires wisdom and judgment.

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

product specifications2

metric

value

Specification consists of a and a

: total weight, torque, speed, ….

: between 5-7 lbs., 100 in-lb minimum …

metric

value

Product Specifications

A set of engineering targets that a product has to satisfy.

Specifications are measurable criteria, goals for the design team.

  • Target specifications are set before conceptual design.
  • Specifications are refined after product concept has been selected.
  • Specifications are frequently revisited and modified during the design process.

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

different forms of value
Different Forms of Value
  • A particular number – load capacity, 2000 lbs.
  • A range – weight between 10-20 lbs.
  • An inequality – speed less the 10 ft/sec. Or speed more than 5 ft/sec.

“It is desired to make the product as light as possible” is a wish requirement not an engineering specification.

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

functional requirements vs constraints
Functional Requirements vs. Constraints

Engineering requirements fall into two categories:

  • Functional Requirements

State the specific performance of the product,

what the device should do.

transfer torque, lift weight, increase speed,...

  • Constraints

state the limitations on the design, not directly related to

the function (cost, size, weight, safety issues, material, …)

Constraints can drive the solution of many products.

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

example loudspeaker qualitative specifications vs quantitative
Example – loudspeaker, qualitative specifications vs., quantitative

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

process of establishing specifications
Process of Establishing Specifications

Prepare a list of metrics

  • Use customer needs
  • Use the design team knowledge and experience
  • Use specification breakdown list

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

specification breakdown list
Specification breakdown list

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

quality function deployment qfd
Quality Function Deployment, QFD

QFD is a methodology for defining the customer’s desires in the customer’s own voice, prioritizing these desires, translating them into engineering requirements, and establishing targets for meeting the requirements.

QFD was developed in 1972 at Mitsubishi, introduced into US by the Xerox Corp. and has been adopted by a number of industries, automobile, electronics,….

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

slide18
QFD
  • Identifying the Customer(s)

Goal: Determine who will use the product

  • Determining Customer Requirements

Goal: Develop a complete list of all requirements

  • Determining Relative Importance of the Requirements

Goal: Evaluate importance of each requirements

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

slide19
QFD
  • Competition Benchmarking

Goal: Determine how the customer perceives the

competition’s ability to meet the requirements

  • Translating Customer Requirements into

Measurable Engineering Requirements

Goal: Develop set of engineering requirements (design

specifications) that are measurable

  • Setting Engineering Targets for the Design

Goal: Determine target values for each engineering

requirements

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

the house of quality

A summary of the product specifications and supporting data consisting of benchmarks, target values, and technical issues.

The House of Quality

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

slide21

The + sign shows a strong positive relationship which indicates that as one metric is improved, the other improves significantly as well

Correlation matrix

The (-) sign shows a conflict, if one metric improves the other one deteriorates.

Functional requirements

Competitor rating

Customer requirements

Engineering targets

The House of Quality

automatic ice tea brewer

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley

comments on house of quality
Comments on House of Quality
  • It provides a large quantity of information in a very concise and well organized form.
  • The intent of the House of Quality is consensus building.
  • The matrix should not be too large.
  • The matrix does not generate specification, it documents them.

Mechanical Engr. Dept., UC Berkeley