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INTRODUCTION. Who We Are: Northern Michigan University NASA Resource Center: Seaborg Math & Science Center Workshop Presenters: Debra Homeier, Seaborg Center Director Scott Stobbelaar, Star Lab Consultant Chris Standerford, Shiras Planetarium Director .

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introduction
INTRODUCTION

Who We Are:

  • Northern Michigan University NASA Resource Center: Seaborg Math & Science Center

Workshop Presenters:

  • Debra Homeier, Seaborg Center Director
  • Scott Stobbelaar, Star Lab Consultant
  • Chris Standerford, Shiras Planetarium Director
night sky network introduction
Night Sky Network Introduction
  • MAS (Marquette Astronomical Society)

http://www.mqtastrosociety.webs.com

  • NSN homepage:

http://nightsky.jpl.nasa.gov/

  • What is required in order to receive Night Sky Toolkits
slide3
TOOLKITS:

1. Solar System Explorer

2. Shadows & Silhouettes

3. Dark Skies

4. Supernova

5. Our Galaxy, Our Universe

6. Planet Quest

7. Glass & Mirrors

8. Telescopes: Eyes on the Universe

9. Black Holes

10. Telescopes: Eyes On The Universe

What materials come with each kit?

slide4
Introduction to black holes

How Are Black Holes made?

Where are they found?

How do we find them?

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Origins Education Forum - STScI

Navigator Public Engagement Program - JPL

slide5
1915: Einstein’s Theory of Gravity predicted the possibility of black holes, but no one believed they actually existed! 1967: Term “Black Hole” coined 1970’s: Convincing evidence that black holes are realToday: NASA space telescopes have discovered evidence for black holes throughout the universe

Albert Einstein

what did einstein say about gravity
What did Einstein say about Gravity?

Mass distorts space - “curving” it

Objects and light moving near the massive object are forced to take a curved path around the object.

Just like the Moon orbiting Earth.

Images courtesy of Professor Gabor Kunstatter, University of Winnipeg

what is a black hole
What is a Black Hole?

An unimaginably dense region of space where space is curved around it so completely and gravity becomes so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape.

Mass is so great in such a small volume that the velocity needed to escape is greater than the speed light travels.

how much would you weigh
How much would you “weigh”?

On Earth, let’s say you weigh 150 lbs.

On the Moon, you’d weigh 25 lbs.

On Jupiter, you’d weigh 350 lbs.

On the Sun, you’d weigh 4,000 lbs.

Near a Black Hole,

you’d weigh over

20 TRILLON POUNDS !!!

where do black holes come from
Where do black holes come from?
  • Three classifications of black holes:
  • #1- Stellar-mass: 3 to 20 times the mass of our Sun
  • #2 - Supermassive: Black holes with millions to billions of times the mass of our Sun
  • #3 - Mid-mass: In between stellar-mass and supermassive
how do they form
How do they form?

#1 Stellar-mass:

Black holes are made when a giant star, many times the mass of our Sun, dies.

Most of the star’s atmosphere is blown into space as a supernova explosion.

The star’s spent core collapses under its own weight.

If the remaining mass is more than the mass of 3 Suns, it will collapse into a black hole.

Supernova:

Credit: European Southern Observatory

where do black holes come from1
Where do black holes come from?

#2-Supermassive:

Extremely massive black holes have been found in the centers of many galaxies - including our own!

Credit: European Southern Observatory (ESO) - Very Large Telescope

where do black holes come from2
Where do black holes come from?

#3 Mid-Mass:

Scientists are finding these in the centers of large, dense star clusters.

Like this globular star cluster, called M15, in our Galaxy.

Image Credit: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

what do you think
What do you think?

What happens to a spaceship that falls into a black hole?

Will the black holes in our Galaxy eventually suck up everything in it - a cosmic vacuum cleaner?

What would happen to Earth if the Sun was replaced by a black hole of the same mass?

If we can’t see black holes, how do we know they are there?

what do you think1
What do you think?

What happens to a spaceship that falls into a black hole?

Will the black holes in our Galaxy eventually suck up everything in it - a cosmic vacuum cleaner?

What would happen to Earth if the Sun was replaced by a black hole of the same mass?

If we can’t see black holes, how do we know they are there?

10

how have we survived and avoided being sucked up by a black hole
How have we survived and avoided being ‘sucked up’ by a black hole?

There are 200 billion stars in our galaxy, the Milky Way

There are also millions of black holes

Including one giant black hole at the very center.

15

slide20
Great distances between the stars!

M74 Photo Credit: NOAO/AURA/NSF

slide21
Everything is orbiting fast!

Sun’s orbit >

M74 Photo Credit: NOAO/AURA/NSF

what do you think2
What do you think?

What happens to a spaceship that falls into a black hole?

Will the black holes in our Galaxy eventually suck up everything in it - a cosmic vacuum cleaner?

What would happen to Earth if the Sun was replaced by a black hole of the same mass?

If we can’t see black holes, how do we know they are there?

10

what do you think3
What do you think?

What happens to a spaceship that falls into a black hole?

Will the black holes in our Galaxy eventually suck up everything in it - a cosmic vacuum cleaner?

What would happen to Earth if the Sun was replaced by a black hole of the same mass?

If we can’t see black holes, how do we know they are there?

10

how do we know it s there
How do we know it’s there?

Jets of glowing gas

“Weird” motions of objects nearby

Hot material falling into the black hole.

Credit: ESA, NASA, and Felix Mirabel

how do we know it s there1
How do we know it’s there?

“Weird” motions of objects nearby

Year

Movie courtesy Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.

how do we know it s there2
How do we know it’s there?

Hot material falling into the black hole.

Minutes

Movie courtesy Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.

how do we know it s there3
How do we know it’s there?

Jets of glowing gas

One month

Movie courtesy of R. Spencer, S. Garrington, D. McKay, T. Muxlow, P. Thomasson, C. de la Force, A. M. Stirling (University of Manchester, Jodrell Bank); G. Pooley (University of Cambridge); R. Fender (University of Amsterdam)

what are we trying to learn
What are we trying to learn?

X-ray: NASA/CXC/U. Wisconsin/A.Barger et al.; Illustrations: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

NASA missions continue to search for and study black holes to determine the fate of matter as it falls into black holes, how powerful jets form, and what role black holes played in the formation of the early universe.

Credit:NASA, ESA, and A. Schaller (for STScI)

black hole survival toolkit
Black Hole Survival ToolKit

Training DVD

Gravity Video

Falling Video

Orbits Video

resources
RESOURCES

Northern Michigan University Seaborg Center website:

http://www.nmu.edu/seaborg

NASA website:

http://www.nasa.gov

National Science Education Standards website:

http://www.nap.edu

Night Sky Training CD

Manual and Resources

Black Hole Slides

Black Hole Videos

questions and answers
Questions and Answers
  • Frequently Asked Questions About NSN:

http://nightsky.jpl.nasa.gov/faq.cfm

nasa black hole web links
NASA Black Hole Web Links

Black Hole Information and Activity Booklets

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/teachers/blackholes/blackholes.html

Link to the NASA Search page of Black Holes, has General, News, Podcasts and Images.

http://search.nasa.gov/search/search.jsp?nasaInclude=black+holes

Link to the NASA Search of Black Hole

http://search.nasa.gov/search/search.jsp?nasaInclude=black+hole

Link to NASA search page of Black Holes Astronomy

http://search.nasa.gov/search/search.jsp?baynoteOrGSA=baynote&nasaInclude=black+holes+%28astronomy%29&output=xml_no_dtd&ie=UTF-8&client=nasa_production&oe=UTF-8&actionType=searchIndex&numgm=5&site=nasa_collection

nasa black hole web links1
NASA Black Hole Web Links

Imagine the Universe: Black Holes (Has links on the side to related articles)

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l2/black_holes.html

World Book at NASA: Black Hole

http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/blackhole_worldbook.html

NASA: Black Hole: Feeling the Ripples

http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/roboticexplorers/black_holes_ripple.html

Black Holes Simple Feeding Habits Image

http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_1114.html

nasa black hole web links2
NASA Black Hole Web Links

Baby Black Hole

http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/watchtheskies/double_burst.html

Medium Black Hole in Omega Centauri

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/science/hst_img_20080402.html

Colliding Galaxies Create Active Galactic Nuclei

http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html?media_id=14100431

For other NASA articles go to:

http://www.nasa.gov/home/index.html

(Enter Black Hole in the search bar)

black hole event evaluation
Black Hole Event Evaluation:

https://oedc.nasa.gov/dc/anonymous.jsp?a=70623635783767870612561999

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