UNIT BEVOLUTION AND MOVEMENT OF FASHION 2.04 Identify major fashion centers, types of designers, and price market categories.
Major fashion centers • New York City • Los Angeles • Atlanta • Chicago • Dallas • Miami • Seattle • Paris • Milan • Florence • Rome • London
New York City, New York Largest fashion marketing center in the U.S. Known for the Seventh Avenue garment district in Manhattan Permanent showrooms of manufacturers from the U.S. and around the world Open weekdays year round Most of the production jobs have been lost to other countries with cheaper labor, but some production jobs exist in Chinatown, Queens, and Brooklyn.
New York City, New York (cont.) Fashion weeks sponsored by the Council of Fashion Designers of America (CFDA) Formed corporation called 7th on Sixth, Inc. to centralize runway shows Shows held in tents in Bryant Park
Los Angeles, California CaliforniaMart is the largest fashion and textile facility in the U.S. An 82-block garment district includes designers, wholesalers, manufacturers, and patternmakers. Hosts a fashion week five times a year Primarily serves the West coast
Atlanta, Georgia • AmericasMart • Primarily serves southeast • Chicago, Illinois—serves central states • Dallas, Texas • International Apparel Mart • Primarily serves central states • Known for evening, bridal, and western fashion
Miami, Florida • World’s largest swimwear show • Wholesale center for the Americas • Seattle, Washington
Paris, France • Considered the world fashion leader • Shows attract over 40,000 visitors and 1,100 exhibitors from 30 countries • Prêt-à-porter Paris® shows twice a year at the same times as mass-produced lines but at different locations
Paris, France (cont.) • Haute couture businesses are located in city “fashion houses” rather than in commercial buildings. • Haute couture designers must belong to Chambre Syndicale. The couturier (or couturiére if female) must be recognized as talented and successful to become a member. • Chambre Syndicale: The trade association for top designers, which is governed by the French Department of Industry.
Paris, France (Cont.) • Chambre Syndicale • Sets qualifications for couture houses and requirements for collection showings • Sponsors a school to educate apprentices • Represents members in relations with the French government • Coordinates dates of showings
Paris, France (cont.) • Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy (LMVH) • French luxury goods conglomerate • Christian Dior SA is the parent company. • Owns about 50 brands. Examples: LaCroix, Celine, Givenchy, Donna Karan, Guerlain (perfumes), and Sephora (cosmetics) • Buys and sells brands based on the profit potential
Alta moda: The high fashion industry in Italy. • Rome is the center for couture. • Milan is the center for high-quality ready-to-wear. • Florence is known for lower-priced ready-to-wear, menswear, children’s wear, and knitwear. • Main collections are shown in fashion fairs prior to the French showings. ITALY
GREAT BRITAIN • London is the major fashion center. • Bond Street is the creative center. • Promoted by the British Fashion Council (BFC) • Fashion week twice a year • Top ready-to-wear designers belong to a co-op association called London Designer Collections.
Terms associated with fashion design • Collection: The total merchandise in a designer’s or apparel manufacturer’s seasonal presentation, especially for high-priced garments. • Couturier (koo-tour-i-er): A male high fashion designer. • Fashion designer: One who creates or adapts clothing and accessory designs for manufacturers, retailers, or individual clients.
Terms associated with fashion design (cont.) • Fashion piracy: Stealing design ideas. • Fashion seasons: Distinct retail selling periods in fashion marketing. • Garment district: The area in a fashion center where most of the apparel companies are located. • Haute couture (hoat koo-tour’): The name for the high fashion designer industry of France; high-fashion, individually designed, original garments.
Terms associated with fashion design (cont.) • Alta moda: The name for the high fashion industry in Italy. • Licensing: A legal arrangement granting a manufacturer the exclusive right to produce and market goods that bear the name of a famous person. • Line: A collection of styles offered by a manufacturer or designer. • Prêt-a-porter (prêt-a-por-tay’): French term for ready-to-wear.
Terms associated with fashion design (cont.) • Private label: Merchandise developed for a given store and displaying that store’s label; found in better, moderate, and budget price market categories. • Ready-to-wear: Apparel mass produced in factories to standard size measurements.
Basic types of designers • Couture • Stylist: One who designs by changing or adapting designs of others. • Makes lower-priced merchandise • Creations made during the rise stage of the fashion cycle • Primarily designs for manufacturers like The Gap, The Limited, and Guess • Freelance designer: An independent designer who sells sketches to manufacturers.
Price market categories of women’s apparel • Designer (Couture) • Category now almost extinct due to the extremely small market • Original, high-priced fashion custom-made for a very few individuals • One-of-a-kind extreme styles, avante-garde • Luxurious, expensive fabrics and trims with intricate details • Sold through the designer’s salon
Price market categories of women’s apparel (cont.) • Designer (Couture) • Sell for many thousands of dollars, maybe up to $50,000 per garment, but do not generate a profit
Price market categories of women’s apparel (cont.) • Bridge • Has almost replaced the couture category • Secondary lines of well-known couture designers • Have the designer’s label • Most expensive ready-to-wear • Limited editions, small quantities offered for sale • Expensive fabrics with fine details
Price market categories of women’s apparel (cont.) • Bridge • Sell for many hundreds of dollars, maybe as much as $5,000 • Sold in fashionable dress shops and upscale department stores like Neiman Marcus, Sak’s, Nordstrom’s, and Bergdorf Goodman
Price market categories of women’s apparel (cont.) • Better • Have a firm label rather than a designer’s name. Example: Jones of New York, Liz Claiborne • Ready-to-wear produced in larger quantities • Reasonable prices • High quality
. Price market categories of women’s apparel (cont.) • Better • Found in specialty stores and department stores. Examples: Macy’s, Marshall Field, and Lord & Taylor
Price market categories of women’s apparel (cont.) • Moderate • Well-known and nationally-advertised brand labels. Examples: Jantzen, Gap, and Wrangler • Lesser-known or unknown designers work for the manufacturer. • Many items inspired by designer creations • Widely available and worn by the majority of America
Price market categories of women’s apparel (cont.) • Moderate • Medium-priced merchandise • High volume sales and higher price margins • Sold primarily through department, chain, or specialty stores
Price market categories of women’s apparel (cont.) • Budget/Discount • Lowest priced category • Created by stylists • Knockoffs: Copies of higher-priced items. • Mass produced in less expensive fabrics with fewer details • Brands such as Gitano, Donkenny, Kathie Lee, Arizona jeans, and Cherokee
Price market categories of women’s apparel (cont.) • Budget/Discount • Sold in discount stores and low-price chains • Private labels such as Arizona jeans (J.C. Penney), Apostrophe (Sears), and Cherokee (Target)