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Reasons for American Imperialism. “New Imperialism”. Colony : direct rule by a foreign power, backed with military force Protectorate : indirect rule by a foreign power; local rulers left in place but must answer to foreign power

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new imperialism
“New Imperialism”
  • Colony: direct rule by a foreign power, backed with military force
  • Protectorate: indirect rule by a foreign power; local rulers left in place but must answer to foreign power
  • Sphere of influence (“economic imperialism”): no direct political control by foreign power, only interest of foreign power is in control of access to trade
reasons for us to grow an empire
Reasons for US to Grow an Empire
  • Need to develop new markets for US agricultural & manufactured goods: US producing more than it can use
  • Need new opportunities for capital investment
  • Mercantilism: belief that nations need to export more than they import to grow and maintain wealth
  • No more frontier: US had expanded as much as it could in North America
  • Manifest Destiny: Americans still believed that God favored their way of life and wanted them to spread elsewhere
frederick jackson turner
Frederick Jackson Turner
  • 1861 – 1932
  • Historian / Professor
  • 1893: Proposed his “Frontier Thesis” which argued that American society had evolved as a result of always having a Western frontier; now that the frontier was closed, US was at risk of stagnation
  • Many interpreted this as meaning that the US needed to find new frontiers in order to maintain our position
social darwinism
Social Darwinism
  • Political, economic, and military competition between nations leads to the failure of the weak and the “survival of the fittest”
  • Small, “inferior” states will be overpowered by “superior” states
anglo saxonism
  • Belief that English speaking nations were destined to rule due to superior character, ideas, and systems of government
  • Popular in Britain and the US
  • Fit well with American idea of “Manifest Destiny”
john fiske
John Fiske
  • 1842 – 1901
  • Writer / Historian
  • Argued that physical evolution of man had ended due to social developments
  • As a result, the society which is superior will be the dominant force in social evolution
josiah strong
Josiah Strong
  • 1847 – 1916
  • Protestant minister
  • Americans should support imperialism because it spreads Christianity
  • The Anglo-Saxon race have a responsibility to “civilize and Christianize” the rest of the world
  • Identified 7 “perils” for American society: Catholicism, Mormonism, Socialism, intemperance, wealth, urbanization, & immigration
capt alfred t mahan
Capt. Alfred T. Mahan
  • 1840 – 1914
  • 1890: Wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History
  • Argued that powerful nations have powerful navies
  • Powerful navies require naval bases worldwide
  • His ideas won widespread political support in both Congress and the White House
the great white fleet
The Great White Fleet
  • Fleet of 16 US battleships sent out on a world tour to demonstrate American naval might between 1907 and 1909 on orders of President Theodore Roosevelt
  • Greatly enhanced American prestige