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  1. Go to http://illuminations.nctm.org/LessonDetail.aspx?id=L396 READ the DIRECTIONS Try Path 1 and Path 2 Then figure out the shortest path to the pond Website on piece of paper at your desk

  2. How to program the shortest path • Press “clear” to erase • To create a new path, • adjust the length by using the blue sliders • press the "forward", "back", or "turn" buttons to have it placed in the programming area • Click “draw” to make it draw

  3. Cryptography? • Answers to our take home packet • Selection of prizes "Cowards die many times before their deaths; the valiant never taste of death but once."

  4. What numbers occur most frequently in the ciphertext? • Frequency analysis is the process by which the frequency of a letter in an encoded messages is compared with the frequency of letters in English words.

  5. What numbers occur most frequently in the ciphertext? • For instance, the letter E occurs most often in English words, so if the letter W occurs most often in ciphertext, then it is likely that E has been replaced by W.

  6. See Handout

  7. Using the Frequency Table Decode this Message • TFNRIUJ UZV DREP KZDVJ SVWFIV KYVZI UVRKYJ; KYV MRCZREK EVMVI KRJKV FW UVRKY SLK FETV. Which letter is used the most?

  8. Using the Frequency Table Decode this Message • TFNRIUJ UZV DREP KZDVJ SVWFIV KYVZI UVRKYJ; KYV MRCZREK EVMVI KRJKV FW UVRKY SLK FETV. Which letter is used the most?

  9. Using the Frequency Table Decode this Message • TFNRIUJ UZV DREP KZDVJ SVWFIV KYVZI UVRKYJ; KYV MRCZREK EVMVI KRJKV FW UVRKY SLK FETV. Which letter is used the most?The next most used letter?

  10. Using the Frequency Table Decode this Message • TFNRIUJ UZV DREP KZDVJ SVWFIV KYVZI UVRKYJ; KYV MRCZREK EVMVI KRJKV FW UVRKY SLK FETV. Which letter is used the most?The next most used letter?

  11. Realign A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P K R S T U V W X Y Z J K L M N O PQ R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I

  12. "Cowards die many times before their deaths; the valiant never taste of death but once."

  13. Caesar Cipher

  14. Caesar Cipher Coded English

  15. Caesar Cipher Starter

  16. Caesar Cipher Starter • Standard Alphabet: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Caesar Alphabet: X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W

  17. Caesar Cipher Starter answers • Message OnePMFBP PBKA PBZOBQ JBPPXDBP.SPIES SEND SECRET MESSAGES. • Message TwoQEB XOJV FP LK QEB JLSB.THE ARMY IS ON THE MOVE. • Message ThreeQELJXP GBCCBOPLK ABPFDKBA X PRYPQFQRQFLK ZFMEBO.THOMAS JEFFERSON DESIGNED A SUBSTITUTION CIPHER.

  18. Easy Decode

  19. Easy Decode Answers Can You Read This Secret Message

  20. Intermediate Decode

  21. Intermediate Decode • Message OneUJTUQJ FQQ FWTZSI YMJ BTWQI QNPJ YT XTQAJ UZEEQJX. • Hint: HINT: Look for a pattern that would fit the word "PEOPLE." • UJTUQJ FQQ FWTZSI YMJ BTWQI QNPJ YT XTQAJ UZEEQJX.

  22. Intermediate Decode • Hint: HINT: Look for a pattern that would fit the word "PEOPLE." • UJTUQJ FQQ FWTZSI YMJ BTWQI QNPJ YT XTQAJ UZEEQJX. • Try converting UJTUQJ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S TU V W X Y Z V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N OP Q R S T U • FQQ using the same code would = all Set UJTUQJ = PEOPLE

  23. Intermediate Decode • Try converting FWTZSI A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z K L MN O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J • Since it doesn’t match, you know the other is correct

  24. Intermediate Decode Answers • Message OneUJTUQJ FQQ FWTZSI YMJ BTWQI QNPJ YT XTQAJ UZEEQJX. • People All Around The World Like To Solve Puzzles.

  25. Intermediate #2 • Message TwoMIGY JOTTFYM WUH VY BULX NI MIFPY, VON MIGY ULY YUMS. • HINT: The word "SOME" appears twice in this sentence.

  26. Intermediate #2 • Message TwoMIGY JOTTFYM WUH VY BULX NI MIFPY, VON MIGY ULY YUMS. • HINT: The word "SOME" appears twice in this sentence. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F Let MIGY= SOME

  27. Intermediate #2 • Message TwoMIGY JOTTFYM WUH VY BULX NI MIFPY, VON MIGY ULY YUMS. • Some Puzzles Can Bb Hard To Solve, But Some Are Easy.

  28. Intermediate #3 • Message ThreeQVQ LBH GUVAX GUNG GUVF CHMMYR JNF UNEQ BE RNFL GB QB?

  29. Intermediate #3 • Message ThreeQVQ LBH GUVAX GUNG GUVF CHMMYR JNF UNEQ BE RNFL GB QB? • HINT:Three words in a row begin with "TH."

  30. Intermediate #3 • Message ThreeQVQ LBH GUVAX GUNG GUVF CHMMYR JNF UNEQ BE RNFL GB QB? • HINT:Three words in a row begin with "TH.“ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M Let GU = TH

  31. Intermediate #3 • Message ThreeQVQ LBH GUVAX GUNG GUVF CHMMYR JNF UNEQ BE RNFL GB QB? • Did You Think That This Puzzle Was Hard Or Easy To Do?

  32. Advanced • Message1. LHKUFXKUL, J LXYIRU ETMMRU KJD NU KJQU TE HV LUOUBJR EJBFL. • 2. KEON MEGS FCHS IK HBWRKJ QX BGJKG SB OBFK SB E OBFMWKSK HBWCSQBX. • 3. VGT OANRV UZNV WO VGAR UFKKBT AR RWBHADX VGT LNQUVWXNZCR VGT CRTBHTR. • 4. IMQC XRK TKOC AMCMWTDIM CBM FMXNRWA KOMA CR TDQ CBM PHZBPGMC. • 5. TNUJTH, HKA QAUJ ZRLAFX KAJ JCX SKFW AUXW ZKF JCX UXJJROL.

  33. Advanced: Step 1Decode each sentence • LHKUFXKUL, J LXYIRU ETMMRU KJD NU KJQU TE HV LUOUBJR EJBFL. • The give away is the letter “J” –what are the only stand alone letters/words in the English language • I or A

  34. Advanced: Step 1Decode each sentence • LHKUFXKUL, J LXYIRU ETMMRU KJD NU KJQU TE HV LUOUBJR EJBFL. • Set J = I A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y • Pick something to test. For example does TE = SD make sense?

  35. Advanced: Step 1Decode each sentence • LHKUFXKUL, J LXYIRU ETMMRU KJD NU KJQU TE HV LUOUBJR EJBFL. • Set J = A A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z R S T U V WX Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O PQ • Pick something to test. For example does TE = KV make sense?

  36. Making Interactive PPT and EXCEL • Examples of Excel

  37. In Excel • Secret Messages • Plot the Secret Location See Handouts for Directions Answers: Secret messages Plot the location

  38. Interactive PPT • Examples of PPT

  39. Remainder of Time Visit • America's Crypto Kids (K-12)National Security Agency (NSA)http://www.nsa.gov/kids/ • CIA Kids’ Page (K-12)Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)https://www.cia.gov/kids-page/index.htmlFBI Kids’ PageFederal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)http://www.fbi.gov/fbikids.htm • Future StateU.S. Department of Stateshttp://www.future.state.gov/ • Ready KidsDepartment of Homeland Securityhttp://www.ready.gov/kids/home.html

  40. http://www.eschoolnews.tv/ • http://cryptoclub.math.uic.edu/shiftcipher/shiftcipher.htm