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RIZAL’S SECOND HOMECOMING – ARREST – TRIAL AND EXECUTION. SAD NEWS FROM CALAMBA. Deportation of Manuel Hidalgo (Rizal’s brother-in-law) Accused of being a “filibustero” Accused of being a “representative” of Rizal in the Philippines
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SAD NEWS FROM CALAMBA • Deportation of Manuel Hidalgo (Rizal’s brother-in-law) • Accused of being a “filibustero” • Accused of being a “representative” of Rizal in the Philippines • Accused of spreading subversive and anti-religious ideas
Rizal leaves London for Paris to Brussels • March 1889 - arrived in Paris • Witness the opening of the International Exposition in Paris (Celebration of French Independence) • January 28, 1890, Rizal went to Brussels (Belgium) • Accompanied by Jose Alberto • Stayed in the house of Jacoby sisters • The Making of the El Fili • Rizal’s family - Evicted
Rizal moved to Madrid • Early August (1890) – Rizal moved to Madrid • Purpose: to pursue the appeal of the case of Hacienda in Calamba before the Supreme Court in Spain • Governor General Valeriano Weyler – enforced the eviction judgment • Colonel Francisco Olive Garcia – led some 50 soldiers to implement the eviction order
BACK TO BRUSSELS • April 1891 – Returned to Brussels – Belgium • Stayed in the same house (Jacoby’s house) • Continue writing El Fili • No letter from Family • Compatriot (Jeana) left Europe for Manila
GHENT - EL FILI • May 1891 – completed the manuscript of El Fili • Rizal moved to Ghent from Brussels ( to look for cheaper printer) • Shared a room with Jose Alejandrino (student from University of Ghent) • Suffer financial crisis • Valentin Ventura (loaned money for Rizal) • September 18, 1891 – El Fili was published • El Fili – dedicated to GOMBURZA • Ferdinand Blumentritt – wrote the introduction to El Fili
The Introduction “The policy of the pro-friars led to the growth of filibusterism and convinced the Filipinos that there was no other salvation but separation from mother Spain”
Rizal bound for Hongkong • October 18, 1891 – Left Europe • Met Jose Ma Basa • Rizal Practiced his profession as Ophthalmic Surgeon • Became acquainted with a Portuguese doctor – Dr Lorenzo Marques (helped Rizal established his practice) • December 6, 1891 – Rizal was reunited with some of his family members who joined him in Hongkong (Father, Paciano, Silvestre Ubaldo) • Later – Teodora, Lucia, Josefa and Trinidad arrived also in HK
Family Reunion in Hongkong • May 13, 1888 Rizal arrived at London • On Board – “City of Rome” While on board: Demonstrated the use of “Yo-Yo” Enumerated the languages he speaks "Tagalog, (his native tongue), Illocano, Spanish, Latin, Greek, French, German, English, Arabic, Malayan, Sanskrit, Hebrew, Swedish, Dutch, Catalan, Italian, Chinese, Portuguese, and Japanese." A few years later while exiled in Dapitan, Mindanao, he learned three others: Subanon, Visayan, and Russian, the last of these by reading Russian fiction with a dictionary, twenty-two languages in all. Dr. Reinhold Rost – linguist friend of Rizal
Arrival in Manila – The Entrapment • Rizal left HK with his sister Lucia • June 26, 1892 – Rizal and Lucia arrived • Subjected to inspection by the custom authorities • On the same day of his arrival – Rizal immediately reported to Governor General Eulogio Despujol • Gov General lifted the deportation of Francisco • Gov Despujol scheduled a second meeting with Rizal (June 29, 1892) • Granted the pardon of his brother and brother in law • The Borneo plan – rejected • Gov Gen asked for a third meeting (July 6) • Rizal established La Liga Filipina
The Arrest • July 6, as scheduled, Rizal went back to the Palace to see the Gov • Rizal was asked about the allege confiscated documents “The Poor Friars” • Gov Gen issued deportation order – published in the “Gaceta de Manila” on July 7, 1892 • Rizal was not exiled immediately – he stayed temporarily in Fort Santiago • July 17, 1892 – arrived in Dapitan • Rizal was met by Ricardo Carnicero – (military commander of Dapitan) • Rizal opted to stay at Carnicero’s house (instead of staying at the Jesuit Mission House)
Dapitan • Rizal (Carnicero and a certain Equilor) won lottery – ticket number 9736 – second price – 20,000 pesos • Rizal’s share – purchased his own land • Watch the film “Jose Rizal sa Dapitan”
REVAMP • Don Antonio Maura – (liberal minded) became Minister of the Colonies - he asked for the resignation of Despujol • Federico Ochando – temporarily replaced Despujol • Gov Gen Ramon Blanco (Military Gov in Mindanao in 1866) – replaced Ochando • Blanco helped Rizal to volunteer in the Spanish Medical Corps in Cuba • Blanco refused to implicate Rizal in the uprising (katipunan) • Carnicero was replaced by Juan Sitges (probably because Carnicero treated Rizal as a friend, not an enemy) • Fr Pablo Pastells was replaced by Fr Juan Ricart as superior of the Jesuit Order
RIZAL leaves Dapitan • July 31, 1896 – Rizal left Dapitan • August 6, 1896 – Rizal arrived in Manila • August 30, 1896 – Rizal received letter from Gov Gen Blanco (The letter was meant to introduce Rizal to the Ministers of War in Cuba for his enlistment) • Septemper 2, 1896 – Rizal was transferred to steamer “Isla de Panay” • September 3, 1896 – Steamer Isla de Panay left Manila (same day that charges were filed against Rizal in connection with the insurgency) • September 30, 1896 – The Captain of Isla de Panay told Rizal he would be confined to his cabin • October 3, 1896 – Isla de Panay arrived in Barcelona • October 6, 1896 – Rizal was taken to Mountjuich Castle (temporary detention) The commanding officer of the Detention is Gen Eulogo Despujol(former governor of the Phil)
Back to Fort Santiago • Despujol informed Rizal that authorities wanted him (Rizal) back to the Philippines (Col Francisco Olive – requested Gen Blanco for Rizal to be back) • October 6, 1896 - left Barcelon for Manila • November 3, 1896 – arrived in Manila • November 30, 1896 Gen Olive summoned Rizal to appear before him for preliminary investigation (informed of the nature of charges against him) • Captain Rafael Dominguez – appointed by Gov Blanco to act as special judge advocate) – found probable cause for prosecution • Blanco forwarded the case to the auditor general Nicolas Peña • Lt Taviel de Andrade – defense lawyer of Rizal • December 11, 1896 – formally charged of rebellion, sedition, and illegal association
The Trial • December 13, 1896 – Gen Blanco was replaced by Gov General Camilo Polavieja • December 13, 1896 - auditor general Nicolas Peña endorsed that the case of Rizal was ready for trial • The case was turned over to Capt Dominguez and Lt Alcocer – who acted as prosecutor of the case • December 26, 1896 – court martial with 7 members was convened (at the Cartel de España, converted into temporary courtroom) • Military Tribunal – consisted of Lt Col Jose Togores Arjona, (the president) Captain Ricardo Muñoz Arias, Capt Manuel Reguera, Capt Santiago Izquierdo Osorio, Capt Manel Diaz Escribano, Capt Fermin Perez Rodriguez, and Capt Braulio Rodriguez Nuñez (members)
SENTENCED TO DEATH • Andrade’s defense centered on the provisions of the Penal Code of Spain in the Philippines (“the provision states that the guilt of the accused can only be established by means of ocular inspection, official documents, credible witness”, according to Andrade, the prosecution failed to establish Rizal’s guilt by any of these) • December 26, 1896 – Council of War, presided by Lt Col Jose Togores Arjona sentenced Jose Rizal • December 28, 1896, Gov Polavieja approved the sentence of Rizal and ordered the convict to be executed by firing squad • December 29, 1896 – Rizal was visited by Jesuits: fathers Saderra, Viza, Balaguer, Vilaclara,March and Faura (to urge Rizal to retract?) • December 30, 1896 – execution by firing squad (7:03 am – Rizal died) • Long Live Spain, Death to Traitors
Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Rizal http://www.scribd.com/doc/8424021/Dr-Jose-Rizal-at-the-University-of-Santo-Tomas http://www.scribd.com/doc/21694647/Life-and-Works-of-Rizal http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~fasawwu/resources/rizal/biography.htm http://asianhistory.about.com/od/profilesofasianleaders/p/joserizalbio.htm http://www.joserizal.ph/ed02.html http://joserizal.info/Biography/man_and_martyr/chapter04.htm