General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

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  1. IAEA Training in Emergency Preparedness and Response General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness Module L-051 Lecture

  2. Objectives • Understand the concept of an integrated emergency preparedness program • Understand the role of exercises within that program • Know the different types of exercises • Know the purpose of exercises L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  3. Background • EPR-METHOD 2003 – Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency provides: • Elements of good response plans and arrangements • Performance objectives L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  4. Background (cont’d) • The evaluation of plans and resources is not sufficient • Training is important • The ability to perform is what matters L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  5. Emergency Preparedness Program QA Programme Organization Authority Meet Response Plans and Procedures Coordination Objectives Training drill and exercises Logistical support and facilities L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  6. Three Components of an Effective Emergency Preparedness Program Plans and procedures Exercises Training L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  7. Emergency Preparedness Effectiveness • How do we know if all the emergency preparedness is effective? • Do we know if it will really work? L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  8. Evaluating Performance • Real Emergency • Drill • Table Top • Test • Exercise L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  9. Real Emergency • The real test! • A learning experience, although too late • Even small incidents provide a good learning opportunity • If properly evaluated (post mortem) • If feed back process • If a positive learning attitude is maintained L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  10. Drill • Drill = small directed exercise • Purpose is learning or testing a small portion of the plan or procedures • Examples • Activation drill • Survey drill • Medical drill • Decision-making drill • A drill is often preceded and/or followed by a training session L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  11. Communications Notification Station personnel accounting Radiological monitoring Off-site exposure assessment Personnel dose assessment and control Contamination control Off-site protective actions Medical first aid Emergency analysis Public information Examples of Drills L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  12. Table Top • Table top = exercise without deployment of resources • Used mainly for decision-makers • Evolution can be slow-time and discussion is encouraged L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  13. Test • Test = evaluated or graded exercise for an individual or a team • A great way to verify performance • Examples: operator testing • Not suitable for a large organization or for several interacting organizations L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  14. Exercises • Exercise = coordinated response to a simulated and complex scenario • Exercises challenge • Plan • Procedures • Resources • Performance • The only real way (except for real emergencies) to test the integrated performance L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  15. Exercises (cont’d) • Exercises are also an excellent training opportunity to: • Test new concepts • Learn to respond under stress L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  16. Facility emergency On-Site Off-Site Full Scale Transport emergency, etc. On-scene Pre-hospital Hospital emergency Longer-term medical management Exercises L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  17. Why Exercises? • Emergency response exercises are: • Powerful tool for verification and improvement • Used for training, validation, evaluation and regulatory purposes • Increasingly considered an important part of safety • Their value depends on clear objectives: • Preparation • Conduct • Evaluation L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  18. Purpose of an Exercise • To test the overall performance of emergency response plans, procedures, arrangements, resources and people • The main purpose is not to test individuals, but to test the system • The purpose of an exercise is not to demonstrate how good the response organizations are, or how bad they could be • To train • To test or explore new concepts and ideas L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  19. Purpose of an Exercise (cont’d) A good exercise is not necessarily one where everything goes well, but rather one where many good lessons are learned L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  20. Purpose of an Exercise (cont’d) • Validate a new plan or a new concept • Periodic verification • Communications • Regulatory compliance • Continued improvement L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  21. Secrets to a Good Exercise • Objectives must be clearly identified and communicated • Scenario must be realistic and challenging • Exercise instructions must be clear, well communicated and professional • Exercise control must be strict, non-intrusive and professional • Evaluation must be critical and well substantiated • Evaluation report must be timely L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  22. Some Important Definitions:Exercise Team • Controllers • Manage the exercise • Provide the necessary injects and data • Evaluators • Take notes during the exercise • Evaluate the exercise L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  23. Some Important Definitions: Players • Emergency responders • Take part in the exercise by taking actions required as if it were a real emergency • Part of the organizations being evaluated • Do not know the exercise scenario L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  24. Some Important Definitions: Observers • Observers observe! • They do not interfere • They do not manage • They do not evaluate • They stay out of the way! L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

  25. Summary • Emergency response exercises • Are part of a safety program • Are the only way to test performance in real time (other than real events) • Challenge the entire organization and its interfaces • Challenge communications • Can be an excellent continuous improvement tool L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness