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The Facebook Era Tapping Online Social Networks to Market, Sell, and Innovate. 社交网络时代 SNS 引发商务与社会变革. 第一部分 为什么社交网络关乎商业事务. 第一章： 第四次数字 革命 第二 章：新社会规范 第三 章：人际关系和社会资本的改变. 第一章： 第四次数字 革命 The Fourth Revolution. 大型计算机（ 20 世纪 70 年代） --- 个人电脑（ 80 年代） --- 互联网（ 90 年代） --- 社交网络（今天）
Mainframe Computing---The PC---The World Wide Web---The online Social Graph
Hoover’s Connect (formerly Visible Path), a corporate-sanctioned form of discovery social networking software, allows users to visualize their professional networks and chart the path of connections separating them from a potential target contact.
Each digital revolution enables new forms of media. Over time, new technologies are making it easier to deliver the right content in the right context at the right time while reaching larger audiences and reducing cost.
In the ‘90s, the Internet emerged as a powerful new distribution mechanism for media, which provided new incentives for people to get involved in reating content and publishing their work.This resulted in an information explosion.
With the online social graph,we can do even better. Already, social filtering on social networking sites is making the content we come across more relevant, interesting, and personal than ever before
Prior to the social graph, greater distribution resulted in more junk. With the social graph, we can use our friends as filters for finding the right content and data at the right time.
iDraw&Paint, a specialized social network community for artists hosted on Ning.
New Orleans, Louisiana-based John F. Kennedy High School’s specialized social network community hosted on Ning.
MyStarbucksIdea is an online ideation community for Starbucks customers that boasts hundreds of thousands of ideas, comments, and users.
MyStarbucksIdea for Facebook takes the original application and applies social filtering from the friend graph to make the ideas and comments shared more relevant and engaging.
Another example comes from FamilyLink, a genealogy database company that provides ancestry tracking tools to 17,000 or so subscribers. FamilyLink developed a Facebookapp,We’reRelated, that lets people show whom on acebookthey are related to and create family tree visualizations.
Pizza Hut and FamilyLink might view Facebook merely as a nice extension to their marketing efforts, but for iLike, Slide, and the million or so other social application development companies, the social networks can make or break their business.
CNN The Forum---观看演说视频，上网实时聊天
Individuals with greater social capital close more deals, are better respected, and get higher-ranking jobs. Online social networks offer accesstosocial capital, empowering those who are well connected with private information, diverse skill sets, and others’ energy and attention.
多种技能汇合Diverse skill sets.
其他人的帮助和关注Others’ energy and attention
Establishing a New Category of Relationships
Communication required time and planning. Social networking sites, on the other hand, are designed for easy, lightweight, ad hoc communication.
Two important innovations in particular have reduced the cost of staying in touch. First, social networking sites provide an easy-to-use database for managing contacts. Facebook is CRM for the masses.
趣味性和直观性fun and intuitive,
Online social networking sites like Facebook are like contact databases that increase our capacity to maintain relationships. We potentially no longer have to forego as many fringe,“long tail” relationships.
Online Interactions Supplement Offline Networking
Social networking sites tend to augment, rather than replace, offline interactions. One of the reasons why Facebookhas been so successful compared with its predecessors is the focus on supporting offline networks over online-only relationships.
Creating New Value from Network Effects
The Reciprocity Ring
The first step in the reciprocity ring exercise was to write down your name and a request to put
forth to the group, and then place these in a circle.
Next, each participant scanned the set of requests and volunteered to help where they could provide value.
The result was every request received help and every participant helped provide a favor.
Social Network Marketing
Customer relationship management, or CRM, attempts to capture the science of sales with software and processes to handle all of a company’s interactions with its customers.
Sales force automation, in particular, builds in processes like forecasting, e-mail templates, dashboards, activity management, and deal alerts so that managers have visibility and sales teams can be more productive预测，电子邮件模板，仪表板，活动管理，并处理警报，使管理人员和有知名度的销售团队可以更有效率(see Figure 4.1).
Online social networking adds another dimension of possibility to CRM by enriching critical sales practices with contextual information and relationship-building tools.获得，建立关系的工具
CRM systems like this one from salesforce.com offer business visibility for managers, improved rep
productivity, and effective selling processes.
Bidirectional visibility helps foster mutual trust. With this information on hand (which you have chosen to share), prospective customers are empowered to “check you out” as a sales rep and hopefully gain confidence in your knowledge and competence in helping them find the right solution for their needs.
They can begin to know the person and try to tailor a sales call that is more personal and relevant. They might even ask mutual friends for introductions.量身定做个性化和相关性强的销售计划
Faceconnector pulls real-time Facebook profile and friend Chapter 4 Social Sales information—such as schools attended, past employers, favorite books, interests, and friends in common如就读学校，过去的雇主，喜爱的书籍，利益和共同的朋友—into Salesforce CRM so that reps viewing a lead or contact record inside Salesforce can see more than just the title and company (see Figure 4.5).
Navigating Complex Customer Organizations
Customer references are critical for establishing trust to close deals.Testimonials from existing customers provide the most convincing social validation of your product.They have voted with their money and time.
Facebookcan help. Casual interaction modes, like Facebook pokes and messages, together with proactive updates in the form of News Feed alerts and Birthday Reminders (both described in Chapter 3) on social networking sites help reps save time staying in touch with their portfolio of customer and prospect contacts.
一名加拿大音乐人为了表达对美国联合航空公司弄坏私人物品的不满，创作了歌曲《联航损坏了吉他》(United Breaks Guitars)并上传至互联网，在短短几天时间内，这段歌唱视频产生的巨大社会影响力让航空公司不得不低头认错。
Stop Wasting Ads on People Who Will Never Buy
With hypertargeting , advertisers can cut out audience segments from their campaigns that areunlikelyto buy or have lower probability of buying (equates to lower ad return on investment [ROI]) and focus on probable buyers.把精力放在有交易的人身上。
Tailor Specific Campaigns
Not only can advertisers cut out undesirable audience segments, among the people they
do want to target it is now possible to segment and tailor what ads are shown to whom. 进一步细分，定位广告人群，量身定制广告。
Bonobos’ ads on Facebook have done well because they appeal specifically to the hypersegment. For example, this ad is meant for Boston Red Sox fans.
Test with Greater Precision
Cost-Effectively Reach Passive Buyers
There is value in showing ads to “passive buyers”—that is, people who aren’t actively seeking out your product but might be interested in buying if encouraged. 如果受到鼓励，他们可能会有兴趣购买。
Poor Brand Fit品牌契合点差
Social Network Fatigue社交网络疲劳
The Adjacency Problem邻接有问题